Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007

Act 32 of 2007

This is the version of this Act as it was from 31 July 2022 to 2 April 2024. Read the latest available version.
South Africa

Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007

Act 32 of 2007

  • Published in Government Gazette 30599 on 14 December 2007
  • Assented to on 13 December 2007
  • There are multiple commencements
  • Provisions Status
    Chapter 1 (section 1–2); Chapter 2 (section 3–14); Chapter 3 (section 15–22); Chapter 4 (section 23–26); Chapter 7 (section 54–72) commenced on 16 December 2007.
    Note: See section 72(1). Commences the whole Act except sections 27 - 53
    Chapter 5 (section 27–39) commenced on 21 March 2008.
    Note: See section 72(2)(a). Commences Chapter 5 (sections 27 - 39).
    Chapter 6 (section 40–53) commenced on 16 June 2008.
    Note: See section 72(2)(b). Commences Chapter 6 (sections 40 - 53).
    Chapter 7, Part 2, section 56A commenced on 26 June 2012.
    Chapter 6, section 44A commenced on 22 January 2014.
    Chapter 3, Part 1, section 15(1)(a), 15(1)(b), section 16(1)(a), 16(1)(b); Chapter 6, section 50(2)(c), 50(2)(d), section 51(2A); Chapter 7, Part 4, section 67(1), 67(2); Part 5, section 69A commenced on 7 July 2015.
    Chapter 7, Part 1A (section 55A); Part 4, section 66(1)(a)(vii), 66(2)(a)(x), 66(3)(a)(vi), 66(3A) commenced on 31 January 2020.
    Chapter 2, Part 3A (section 11A); Chapter 3, Part 2, section 17(7), section 19A, section 20(3), 20(4); Chapter 7, Part 1, section 54(3), 54(4); Part 2, section 56A(3), 56A(4), 56A(5), 56A(6), 56A(7), 56A(8) commenced on 1 December 2021.
    Chapter 2, Part 4, section 12(1)(a), 12(1)(b); Part 5 (section 14A); Chapter 6, section 41(a), 41(b), 41(c), 41(d), section 42(3)(a), 42(3)(b), 42(3)(c), 42(4), 42(5), 42(6), section 44B, section 44C, section 48(2)(a), 48(2)(b), 48(2)(c), section 51(2B), 51(4) commenced on 31 July 2022.
  • [This is the version of this document as it was from 31 July 2022 to 2 April 2024.]
  1. [Amended by Judicial Matters Amendment Act, 2008 (Act 66 of 2008) on 17 February 2009]
  2. [Amended by Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act Amendment Act, 2012 (Act 6 of 2012) on 26 June 2012]
  3. [Amended by Judicial Matters Amendment Act, 2013 (Act 42 of 2013) on 22 January 2014]
  4. [Amended by Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act Amendment Act, 2015 (Act 5 of 2015) on 7 July 2015]
  5. [Amended by Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2013 (Act 7 of 2013) on 9 August 2015]
  6. [Amended by Judicial Matters Amendment Act, 2015 (Act 24 of 2015) on 8 January 2016]
  7. [Amended by Judicial Matters Amendment Act, 2017 (Act 8 of 2017) on 2 August 2017]
  8. [Amended by Judicial Matters Second Amendment Act, 2013 (Act 43 of 2013) on 31 January 2020]
  9. [Amended by Judicial Matters Amendment Act, 2017 (Act 8 of 2017) on 31 January 2020]
  10. [Amended by Cybercrimes Act, 2020 (Act 19 of 2020) on 1 December 2021]
  11. [Amended by Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act Amendment Act, 2021 (Act 13 of 2021) on 31 July 2022]
(English text signed by the President)ACTTo comprehensively and extensively review and amend all aspects of the laws and the implementation of the laws relating to sexual offences, and to deal with all legal aspects of or relating to sexual offences in a single statute, by—repealing the common law offence of rape and replacing it with a new expanded statutory offence of rape, applicable to all forms of sexual penetration without consent, irrespective of gender; repealing the common law offence of indecent assault and replacing it with a new statutory offence of sexual assault, applicable to all forms of sexual violation without consent;creating new statutory offences relating to certain compelled acts of penetration or violation;creating new statutory offences, for adults, by criminalising the compelling or causing the witnessing of certain sexual conduct and certain parts of the human anatomy, the exposure or display of child pornography, the engaging of sexual services of an adult and sexual intimidation;repealing the common law offences of incest, bestiality and violation of a corpse, as far as such violation is of a sexual nature, and enacting corresponding new statutory offences;enacting comprehensive provisions dealing with the creation of certain new, expanded or amended sexual offences against children and persons with mental disabilities, including offences relating to sexual exploitation or grooming, exposure to or display of pornography and the creation of child pornography, despite some of the offences being similar to offences created in respect of adults as the creation of these offences aims to address the particular vulnerability of children and persons with mental disabilities in respect of sexual abuse or exploitation;eliminating the differentiation drawn between the age of consent for different consensual sexual acts;criminalising any attempt, conspiracy or incitement to commit a sexual offence;creating a duty to report sexual offences committed with or against persons who are vulnerable;providing the South African Police Service with new investigative tools when investigating sexual offences or other offences involving the HIV status of the perpetrator;providing our courts with extra-territorial jurisdiction when hearing matters relating to sexual offences;providing certain services to certain victims of sexual offences, inter alia, to minimise or, as far as possible, eliminate secondary traumatisation, including affording a victim of certain sexual offences the right to require that the alleged perpetrator be tested for his or her HIV status and the right to receive Post Exposure Prophylaxis in certain circumstances;establishing and regulating a National Register for Sex Offenders;designating certain courts, where necessary, to deal with matters relating to sexual offences;further regulating procedures, defences and other evidentiary matters in the prosecution and adjudication of sexual offences;making provision for the adoption of a national policy framework regulating all matters in this Act, including the manner in which sexual offences and related matters must be dealt with uniformly, in a co-ordinated and sensitive manner, by all Government departments and institutions and the issuing of national instructions and directives to be followed by the law enforcement agencies, the national prosecuting authority and health care practitioners to guide the implementation, enforcement and administration of this Act in order to achieve the objects of the Act;to provide for matters connected therewith.[longtitle amended by section 12 of Act 5 of 2015, by section 48 of Act 7 of 2013, by section 5 of Act 43 of 2013 and by section 29 of Act 13 of 2021]
WHEREAS the commission of sexual offences in the Republic is of grave concern, as it has a particularly disadvantageous impact on vulnerable persons, the society as a whole and the economy;WHEREAS women and children, being particularly vulnerable, are more likely to become victims of sexual offences, including participating in adult prostitution and sexual exploitation of children;WHEREAS the prevalence of the commission of sexual offences in our society is primarily a social phenomenon, which is reflective of deep-seated, systemic dysfunctionality in our society, and that legal mechanisms to address this social phenomenon are limited and are reactive in nature, but nonetheless necessary;WHEREAS the South African common law and statutory law do not deal adequately, effectively and in a non-discriminatory manner with many aspects relating to or associated with the commission of sexual offences, and a uniform and co-ordinated approach to the implementation of and service delivery in terms of the laws relating to sexual offences is not consistently evident in Government; and thereby which, in too many instances, fails to provide adequate and effective protection to the victims of sexual offences thereby exacerbating their plight through secondary victimisation and traumatisation;WHEREAS several international legal instruments, including the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979, and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, place obligations on the Republic towards the combating and, ultimately, eradicating of abuse and violence against women and children;AND WHEREAS the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, enshrines the rights of all people in the Republic of South Africa, including the right to equality, the right to privacy, the right to dignity, the right to freedom and security of the person, which incorporates the right to be free from all forms of violence from either public or private sources, and the rights of children and other vulnerable persons to have their best interests considered to be of paramount importance,BE IT THEREFORE ENACTED by the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—

Chapter 1
Definitions and objects

1. Definitions and interpretation of Act

(1)In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise—"care giver" means any person who, in relation to a person with a mental disability, takes responsibility for meeting the daily needs of or is in substantial contact with such person;[definition of "care giver" substituted by section 1(a) of Act 13 of 2021]"child" means a person under the age of 18 years and "children" has a corresponding meaning;[definition of "child" substituted by section 1 of Act 5 of 2015]"child pornography" means any image, however created, or any description or presentation of a person, real or simulated, who is, or who is depicted or described or presented as being, under the age of 18 years, of an explicit or sexual nature, whether such image or description or presentation is intended to stimulate erotic or aesthetic feelings or not, including any such image or description of such person—(a)engaged in an act that constitutes a sexual offence;(b)engaged in an act of sexual penetration;(c)engaged in an act of sexual violation;(d)engaged in an act of self-masturbation;(e)displaying the genital organs of such person in a state of arousal or stimulation;(f)unduly displaying the genital organs or anus of such person;(g)displaying any form of stimulation of a sexual nature of such person’s breasts;(h)engaged in sexually suggestive or lewd acts;(i)engaged in or as the subject of sadistic or masochistic acts of a sexual nature;(j)engaged in any conduct or activity characteristically associated with sexual intercourse;(k)showing or describing such person—(i)participating in, or assisting or facilitating another person to participate in; or(ii)being in the presence of another person who commits or in any other manner being involved in,any act contemplated in paragraphs (a) to (j); or(l)showing or describing the body, or parts of the body, of such person in a manner or in circumstances which, within the context, violate or offend the sexual integrity or dignity of that person or any category of persons under 18 or is capable of being used for the purposes of violating or offending the sexual integrity or dignity of that person, any person or group or categories of persons;"complainant" means the alleged victim of a sexual offence;"Director of Public Prosecutions" means a Director of Public Prosecutions contemplated in section 179(1)(b) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, and appointed in terms of section 13 of the National Prosecuting Authority Act, 1998 (Act No. 32 of 1998), acting in accordance with any directives issued under this Act by the National Director of Public Prosecutions, where applicable, or in accordance with any other prosecution policy or policy directives contemplated in section 21 of the National Prosecuting Authority Act, 1998;"disclose" and "disclosure", in relation to the harmful disclosure of pornography contemplated in section 11A, includes—(a)to send the pornography to a person who is the intended recipient of the electronic communication or any other person;(b)to store the pornography on an electronic communications network, where the pornography can be viewed, copied or downloaded; or(c)to send or otherwise make available to a person, a link to the pornography that has been stored on an electronic communication network, where the pornography can be viewed, copied or downloaded;[definition of "disclose" and "disclosure" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"Electronic Communications Act" means the Electronic Communications Act, 2005 (Act No. 36 of 2005);[definition of "Electronic Communications Act" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"electronic communications identity number" means a technical identification label which represents the origin or destination of electronic communications traffic;[definition of "electronic communications identity number" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"electronic communications network" means an "electronic communications network" as defined in section 1 of the Electronic Communications Act, 2005, and includes a computer system;[definition of "electronic communications network" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"electronic communications service" means any service which consists wholly or mainly of the conveyance by any means of electronic communications over an electronic communications network, but excludes broadcasting services as defined in section 1 of the Electronic Communications Act, 2005;[definition of "electronic communications service" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"electronic communications service provider" means—(a)any person who provides an electronic communications service to the public, sections of the public, the State, or the subscribers to such service, under and in accordance with an electronic communications service licence issued to that person in terms of the Electronic Communications Act, 2005, or who is deemed to be licensed or exempted from being licensed as such in terms of that Act; and(b)a person who has lawful authority to control the operation or use of a private electronic communications network used primarily for providing electronic communications services for the owner’s own use and which is exempted from being licensed in terms of the Electronic Communications Act, 2005;[definition of "electronic communications service provider" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"genital organs" includes the whole or part of the male and female genital organs, and further includes surgically constructed or reconstructed genital organs;"host" means to store information on an electronic communications network that is used to provide an electronic communications service, where it can be viewed, copied or downloaded;[definition of "host" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"live performance involving child pornography" means an event where a child is used to create, make or produce child pornography;[definition of "live performance involving child pornography" inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]"Minister" means the cabinet member responsible for the administration of justice;"National Director of Public Prosecutions" means the person contemplated in section 179(1)(a) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, and appointed in terms of section 10 of the National Prosecuting Authority Act, 1998 (Act No. 32 of 1998);"person with a mental disability" means a person affected by any mental disability, including any disorder or disability of the mind, to the extent that he or she, at the time of the alleged commission of the offence in question, was—(a)unable to appreciate the nature and reasonably foreseeable consequences of a sexual act;(b)able to appreciate the nature and reasonably foreseeable consequences of such an act, but unable to act in accordance with that appreciation;(c)unable to resist the commission of any such act; or(d)unable to communicate his or her unwillingness to participate in any such act;[definition of "person with a mental disability", previously "person who is mentally disabled", amended by section 1(b) of Act 13 of 2021]"pornography" means any image, however created, or any description of a person, real or simulated, who is 18 years or older, of an explicit or sexual nature that is intended to stimulate erotic feelings, including any such image or description of such person—(a)engaged in an act that constitutes a sexual offence;(b)engaged in an act of sexual penetration;(c)engaged in an act of sexual violation;(d)engaged in an act of self-masturbation;(e)displaying the genital organs of such person in a state of arousal or stimulation;(f)unduly displaying the genital organs or anus of such person;(g)displaying any form of stimulation of a sexual nature of the female breasts;(h)engaged in sexually suggestive or lewd acts;(i)engaged in or as the subject of sadistic or masochistic acts of a sexual nature;(j)engaged in any conduct or activity characteristically associated with sexual intercourse; or(k)showing or describing the body, or parts of the body, of that person in a manner or in circumstances which, within the context, violate or offend the sexual integrity or dignity of that person or any other person or is capable of being used for the purposes of violating or offending the sexual integrity or dignity of that person or any other person;"Republic" means the Republic of South Africa;"sexual act" means an act of sexual penetration or an act of sexual violation;"sexual offence" means any offence in terms of Chapters 2, 3 and 4 and section 55 of this Act and any offence referred to in Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2013, which was committed for sexual purposes;[definition of "sexual offence" substituted by section 48 of Act 7 of 2013]"sexual offences court" means a court that has a court roll that deals exclusively with the bail application, plea proceedings, trial or sentencing of a person in criminal proceedings arising out of—(a)an alleged commission of a sexual offence in terms of the common law, any offence in terms of the Sexual Offences Act, 1957 (Act No. 23 of 1957), or any offence in terms of this Act;(b)any offence in terms of any other law which has a bearing on sexual offences contemplated in paragraph (a), or which involves the complainant against whom a sexual offence contemplated in paragraph (a) is alleged to have been committed; or(c)any offence in terms of any other law which the Director of Public Prosecutions having jurisdiction, or a prosecutor authorised thereto in writing by him or her, deems expedient or necessary for the administration of justice in a particular case, to be disposed of together with an offence contemplated in paragraph (a),and which has facilities, measures, services and requirements as prescribed by the Minister by regulation in terms of section 55A(6) of the Act;[definition of "sexual offences court" inserted by section 35 of Act 8 of 2017]"sexual penetration" includes any act which causes penetration to any extent whatsoever by—(a)the genital organs of one person into or beyond the genital organs, anus, or mouth of another person;(b)any other part of the body of one person or, any object, including any part of the body of an animal, into or beyond the genital organs or anus of another person; or(c)the genital organs of an animal, into or beyond the mouth of another person, and "sexually penetrates" has a corresponding meaning;"sexual violation" includes any act which causes—(a)direct or indirect contact between the—(i)genital organs or anus of one person or, in the case of a female, her breasts, and any part of the body of another person or an animal, or any object, including any object resembling or representing the genital organs or anus of a person or an animal;(ii)mouth of one person and—(aa)the genital organs or anus of another person or, in the case of a female, her breasts;(bb)the mouth of another person;(cc)any other part of the body of another person, other than the genital organs or anus of that person or, in the case of a female, her breasts, which could—(aaa)be used in an act of sexual penetration;(bbb)cause sexual arousal or stimulation; or(ccc)be sexually aroused or stimulated thereby; or(dd)any object resembling the genital organs or anus of a person, and in the case of a female, her breasts, or an animal; or(iii)mouth of the complainant and the genital organs or anus of an animal;(b)the masturbation of one person by another person; or(c)the insertion of any object resembling or representing the genital organs of a person or animal, into or beyond die mouth of another person,but does not include an act of sexual penetration, and "sexually violates" has a corresponding meaning; and"this Act" includes any regulations made under this Act, including the regulations made under sections 39, 53 and 67.
(2)For the purposes of sections 3, 4, 5(1), 6, 7, 8(1), 8(2), 8(3), 9, 10, 12, 17(1), 17(2), 17(3)(a), 19, 20(1), 21(1), 21(2), 21(3) and 22, "consent" means voluntary or uncoerced agreement.
(3)Circumstances in subsection (2) in respect of which a person ("B") (the complainant) does not voluntarily or without coercion agree to an act of sexual penetration, as contemplated in sections 3 and 4, or an act of sexual violation as contemplated in sections 5(1), 6 and 7 or any other act as contemplated in sections 8(1), 8(2), 8(3), 9, 10, 12, 17(1), 17(2), 17(3)(a), 19, 20(1), 21(1), 21(2), 21(3) and 22 include, but are not limited to, the following:
(a)Where B (the complainant) submits or is subjected to such a sexual act as a result of—
(i)the use of force or intimidation by A (the accused person) against B, C (a third person) or D (another person) or against the property of B, C or D; or
(ii)a threat of harm by A against B, C or D or against the property of B, C or D;
(b)where there is an abuse of power or authority by A to the extent that B is inhibited from indicating his or her unwillingness or resistance to the sexual act, or unwillingness to participate in such a sexual act;
(c)where the sexual act is committed under false pretences or by fraudulent means, including where B is led to believe by A that—
(i)B is committing such a sexual act with a particular person who is in fact a different person; or
(ii)such a sexual act is something other than that act; or
(d)where B is incapable in law of appreciating the nature of the sexual act, including where B is, at the time of the commission of such sexual act
(i)asleep;
(ii)unconscious;
(iii)in an altered state of consciousness, including under the influence of any medicine, drug, alcohol or other substance, to the extent that B’s consciousness or judgement is adversely affected;
(iv)a child below the age of 12 years; or
(v)a person with a mental disability.[subparagraph (v) substituted by section 1(c) of Act 13 of 2021]

2. Objects

The objects of this Act are to afford complainants of sexual offences the maximum and least traumatising protection that the law can provide, to introduce measures which seek to enable the relevant organs of state to give full effect to the provisions of this Act and to combat and, ultimately, eradicate the relatively high incidence of sexual offences committed in the Republic by:
(a)Enacting all matters relating to sexual offences in a single statute;
(b)criminalising all forms of sexual abuse or exploitation;
(c)repealing certain common law sexual offences and replacing them with new and, in some instances, expanded or extended statutory sexual offences, irrespective of gender;
(d)protecting complainants of sexual offences and their families from secondary victimisation and trauma by establishing a co-operative response between all government departments involved in implementing an effective, responsive and sensitive criminal justice system relating to sexual offences;
(e)promoting the spirit of batho pele ("the people first") in respect of service delivery in the criminal justice system dealing with sexual offences by—
(i)ensuring more effective and efficient investigation and prosecution of perpetrators of sexual offences by clearly defining existing offences, and creating new offences;
(ii)giving proper recognition to the needs of victims of sexual offences through timeous, effective and non-discriminatory investigation and prosecution;
(iii)facilitating a uniform and co-ordinated approach by relevant Government departments in dealing with sexual offences;
(iv)entrenching accountability of government officials; and
(v)minimising disparities in the provision of services to victims of sexual offences;
(f)providing certain services to victims of sexual offences, including affording victims of sexual offences the right to receive Post Exposure Prophylaxis in certain circumstances; and
(g)establishing a National Register for Sex Offenders in order to establish a record of persons who are or have been convicted of any "sexual offences", as defined in section 40, so as to prohibit such persons from being employed in a manner that places them in a position to work with or have authority or supervision over or care of persons who are vulnerable.[paragraph (g) substituted by section 2 of Act 13 of 2021]

Chapter 2
Sexual offences

Part 1 – Rape and compelled rape

3. Rape

Any person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally commits an act of sexual penetration with a complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of rape.

4. Compelled rape

Any person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally compels a third person ("C"), without the consent of C, to commit an act of sexual penetration with a complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of compelled rape.

Part 2 – Sexual assault, compelled sexual assault and compelled self-sexual assault

5. Sexual assault

(1)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally sexually violates a complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of sexual assault.
(2)[subsection (2) deleted by section 3 of Act 13 of 2021]

6. Compelled sexual assault

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally compels a third person ("C"), without the consent of C, to commit an act of sexual violation with a complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of compelled sexual assault.

7. Compelled self-sexual assault

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally compels a complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, to—
(a)engage in—
(i)masturbation;
(ii)any form of arousal or stimulation of a sexual nature of the female breasts; or
(iii)sexually suggestive or lewd acts,
with B himself or herself;
(b)engage in any act which has or may have the effect of sexually arousing or sexually degrading B; or
(c)cause B to penetrate in any manner whatsoever his or her own genital organs or anus,
is guilty of the offence of compelled self-sexual assault.

Part 3 – Persons 18 years or older: Compelling or causing persons 18 years or older to witness sexual offences, sexual acts or self-masturbation, exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of genital organs, anus or female breasts ("flashing"), child pornography to persons 18 years or older or engaging sexual services of persons 18 years or older

8. Compelling or causing persons 18 years or older to witness a sexual offences, sexual acts or self-masturbation

(1)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, compels or causes a complainant 18 years or older ("B"), without the consent of B, to be in the presence of or watch A or C while he, she or they commit a sexual offence, is guilty of the offence of compelling or causing a person 18 years or older to witness a sexual offence.
(2)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, compels or causes a complainant 18 years or older ("B"), without the consent of B, to be in the presence of or watch—
(a)A while he or she engages in a sexual act with C or another person ("D"); or
(b)C while he or she engages in a sexual act with D,
is guilty of the offence of compelling or causing a person 18 years or older to witness a sexual act.
(3)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, compels or causes a complainant 18 years or older ("B"), without the consent of B, to be in the presence of or watch A or C while he or she engages in an act of self-masturbation, is guilty of the offence of compelling or causing a person 18 years or older to witness self-masturbation.

9. Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of genital organs, anus or female breasts to persons 18 years or older ("flashing")

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, exposes or displays or causes the exposure or display of the genital organs, anus or female breasts of A or C to a complainant 18 years or older ("B"), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of exposing or displaying or causing the exposure or display of genital organs, anus or female breasts to a person 18 years or older.

10. Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography to persons 18 years or older

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, exposes or displays or causes the exposure or display of child pornography to a complainant 18 years or older ("B"), with or without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of exposing or displaying or causing the exposure or display of child pornography to a person 18 years or older.

11. Engaging sexual services of persons 18 years or older

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally engages the services of a person 18 years or older ("B"), for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to B or to a third person ("C")—
(a)for the purpose of engaging in a sexual act with B, irrespective of whether the sexual act is committed or not; or
(b)by committing a sexual act with B,
is guilty of the offence of engaging the sexual services of a person 18 years or older.[section 11 substituted by section 1 of Act 6 of 2012]

Part 3A – Persons 18 years or older: Harmful disclosure of pornography and orders to protect complainant against harmful effects of disclosure of pornography

[part 3A inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]

11A. Harmful disclosure of pornography

(1)A person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally discloses or causes the disclosure of pornography in which a person ('B') appears or is described and such disclosure—
(a)takes place without the consent of B; and
(b)causes any harm, including mental, psychological, physical, social or economic harm, to B or any member of the family of B or any other person in a close relationship to B,
is guilty of the offence of harmful disclosure of pornography.
(2)A person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally threatens to disclose or threatens to cause the disclosure of pornography referred to in subsection (1) and such threat causes, or such disclosure could reasonably be expected to cause, any harm referred to in subsection (1)(b), is guilty of the offence of threatening to disclose pornography that will cause harm.
(3)A person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally threatens to disclose or threatens to cause the disclosure of pornography referred to in subsection (1), for the purposes of obtaining any advantage from B or any member of the family of B or any other person in a close relationship to B, is guilty of the offence of harmful disclosure of pornography related extortion.
[section 11A inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]

Part 4 – Incest, bestiality and sexual acts with corpse

12. Incest

(1)Persons who may not lawfully marry each other on account of consanguinity, affinity or an adoptive relationship and who unlawfully and intentionally engage in an act of—
(a)sexual penetration with each other; or
(b)sexual violation with each other where one of them is a child, and the act of sexual violation was of such a nature that it was reprehensible for the adult person to have acted in that manner under the circumstances concerned,
are, despite their mutual consent to engage in such act, guilty of the offence of incest.[subsection (1) substituted by section 4 of Act 13 of 2021]
(2)For the purposes of subsection (1)—
(a)the prohibited degrees of consanguinity (blood relationship) are the following:
(i)Ascendants and descendents in the direct line; or
(ii)collaterals, if either of them is related to their common ancestor in the first degree of descent;
(b)the prohibited degrees of affinity are relations by marriage in the ascending and descending line; and
(c)an adoptive relationship is the relationship of adoption as provided for in any other law.
(3)
(a)The institution of a prosecution of a person who is a child at the time of the alleged commission of the offence referred to in subsection (1) must be authorised in writing by the National Director of Public Prosecutions.
(b)The National Director of Public Prosecutions may not delegate his or her power to decide whether a prosecution in terms of this section should be instituted or not.

13. Bestiality

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally commits an act—
(a)which causes penetration to any extent whatsoever by the genital organs of—
(i)A into or beyond the mouth, genital organs or anus of an animal; or
(ii)an animal into or beyond the mouth, genital organs or anus of A; or
(b)of masturbation of an animal, unless such act is committed for scientific reasons or breeding purposes, or of masturbation with an animal,
is guilty of the offence of bestiality.

14. Sexual act with corpse

A person who unlawfully and intentionally commits a sexual act with a human corpse, is guilty of the offence of committing a sexual act with a corpse.

Part 5 – Sexual intimidation

[Part 5 inserted by section 5 of Act 13 of 2021]

14A. Sexual intimidation

A person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally utters or conveys a threat to a complainant ('B') that inspires a reasonable belief of imminent harm in B that a sexual offence will be committed against B, or a third party ('C') who is a member of the family of B or any other person in a close relationship with B, is guilty of the offence of sexual intimidation and may be liable on conviction to the punishment to which a person convicted of actually committing a sexual offence would be liable.[section 14A inserted by section 5 of Act 13 of 2021]

Chapter 3
Sexual offences against children

Part 1 – Consensual sexual acts with certain children

15. Acts of consensual sexual penetration with certain children (statutory rape)

(1)A person ("A") who commits an act of sexual penetration with a child ("B") who is 12 years of age or older but under the age of 16 years is, despite the consent of B to the commission of such an act, guilty of the offence of having committed an act of consensual sexual penetration with a child, unless A, at the time of the alleged commission of such an act, was—
(a)12 years of age or older but under the age of 16 years; or
(b)either 16 or 17 years of age and the age difference between A and B was not more than two years.
(2)
(a)The institution of a prosecution for an offence referred to in subsection (1) must be authorised in writing by the Director of Public Prosecutions if A was either 16 or 17 years of age at the time of the alleged commission of the offence and the age difference between A and B was more than two years.
(b)The Director of Public Prosecutions concerned may delegate his or her power to decide whether a prosecution in terms of this section should be instituted or not.
[section 15 substituted by section 2 of Act 5 of 2015]

16. Acts of consensual sexual violation with certain children (statutory sexual assault)

(1)A person ("A") who commits an act of sexual violation with a child ("B") who is 12 years of age or older but under the age of 16 years is, despite the consent of B to the commission of such an act, guilty of the offence of having committed an act of consensual sexual violation with a child unless A, at the time of the alleged commission of such an act, was—
(a)12 years of age or older but under the age of 16 years; or
(b)either 16 or 17 years of age and the age difference between A and B was not more than two years.
(2)
(a)The institution of a prosecution for an offence referred to in subsection (1) must be authorised to writing by the relevant Director of Public Prosecutions if A was either 16 of 17 years of age at the time of the alleged commission of the offence and the age difference between A and B was more than two years.
(b)The Director of Public Prosecutions concerned may delegate his or her power to decide whether a prosecution in terms of this section should be instituted or not.
[section 16 substituted by section 3 of Act 5 of 2015]

Part 2 – Sexual exploitation and sexual grooming of children, exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children, offences relating to child pornography and using children for pornographic purposes or benefiting from child pornography

[part 2 heading substituted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]

17. Sexual exploitation of children

(1)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally engages the services of a child complainant ("B"), with or without the consent of B, for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to B or to a third person ("C")—
(a)for the purpose of engaging in a sexual act with B, irrespective of whether the sexual act is committed or not; or
(b)by committing a sexual act with B,
is, in addition to any other offence which he or she may be convicted of, guilty of the offence of sexual exploitation of a child.[subsection (1) substituted by section 2 of Act 6 of 2012]
(2)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally offers the services of a child complainant ("B") to a third person ("C"), with or without the consent of B, for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to A, B or to another person ("D")—
(a)for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C;
(b)by inviting, persuading or inducing B to allow C to commit a sexual act with B;
(c)by participating in, being involved in, promoting, encouraging or facilitating the commission of a sexual act with B by C;
(d)by making available, offering or engaging B for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C; or
(e)by detaining B, whether under threat, force, coercion, deception, abuse of power or authority, for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C,
is guilty of an offence of being involved in the sexual exploitation of a child.
(3)A person ("A") who—
(a)intentionally allows or knowingly permits the commission of a sexual act by a third person ("C") with a child complainant ("B"), with or without the consent of B, while being a primary care-giver defined in section 1 of the Social Assistance Act, 2004 (Act No. 13 of 2004), parent or guardian of B; or
(b)owns, leases, rents, manages, occupies or has control of any movable or immovable property and intentionally allows or knowingly permits such movable or immovable property to be used for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C, with or without the consent of B,
is guilty of the offence of furthering the sexual exploitation of a child.
(4)A person ("A") who intentionally receives financial or other reward, favour or compensation from the commission of a sexual act with a child complainant ("B"), with of without the consent of B, by a third person ("C"), is guilty of an offence of benefiting from the sexual exploitation of a child.
(5)A person ("A") who intentionally lives wholly or in part on rewards, favours or compensation for the commission of a sexual act with a child complainant ("B"), with or without the consent of B, by a third person ("C"), is guilty of an offence of living from the earnings of the sexual exploitation of a child.
(6)A person ("A"), including a juristic person, who—
(a)makes or organises any travel arrangements for or on behalf of a third person ("C"), whether that other person is resident within or outside the borders of the Republic, with the intention of facilitating the commission of any sexual act with a child complainant ("B"), with or without the consent of B, irrespective of whether that act is committed or not; or
(b)prints or publishes, in any manner, any information that is intended to promote or facilitate conduct that would constitute a sexual act with B,
is guilty of an offence of promoting child sex tours.
(7)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally in any manner advocates, advertises, encourages or promotes the sexual exploitation of a child, is guilty of an offence.[subsection (7) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]

18. Sexual grooming of children

(1)A person ("A") who—
(a)manufactures, produces, possesses, distributes or facilitates the manufacture, production or distribution of an article, which is exclusively intended to facilitate the commission of a sexual act with or by a child ("B");
(b)manufactures, produces, possesses, distributes or facilitates the manufacture, production or distribution of a publication or film that promotes or is intended to be used in the commission of a sexual act with or by "B";
(c)supplies, exposes or displays to a third person ("C")—
(i)an article which is intended to be used in the performance of a sexual act;
(ii)child pornography or pornography; or
(iii)a publication or film,
with the intention to encourage, enable, instruct or persuade C to perform a sexual act with B; or
(d)arranges or facilitates a meeting or communication between C and B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, with the intention that C will perform a sexual act with B,
is guilty of the offence of promoting the sexual grooming of a child.
(2)A person ("A") who—
(a)supplies, exposes or displays to a child complainant ("B")—
(i)an article which is intended to be used in the performance of a sexual act;
(ii)child pornography or pornography; or
(iii)a publication or film,
with the intention to encourage, enable, instruct or persuade B to perform a sexual act;
(b)commits any act with or in the presence of B or who describes the commission of any act to or in the presence of B with the intention to encourage or persuade B or to diminish or reduce any resistance or unwillingness on the part of B to—
(i)perform a sexual act with A or a third person ("C");
(ii)perform an act of self-masturbation in the presence of A or C or while A or C is watching;
(iii)be in the presence of or watch A or C while A or C performs a sexual act or an act of self-masturbation;
(iv)be exposed to child pornography or pornography;
(v)be used for pornographic purposes as contemplated in section 20(1); or
(vi)expose his or her body, or parts of his or her body to A or C in a manner or in circumstances which violate or offend the sexual integrity or dignity of B;
(c)arranges or facilitates a meeting or communication with B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, with the intention that A will commit a sexual act with B;
(d)having met or communicated with B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, invites, persuades, seduces, induces, entices or coerces B—
(i)to travel to any part of the world in order to meet A with the intention to commit a sexual act with B; or
(ii)during such meeting or communication or any subsequent meeting or communication to—
(aa)commit a sexual act with A;
(bb)discuss, explain or describe the commission of a sexual act; or
(cc)provide A, by means of any form of communication including electronic communication, with any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence of child pornography of B himself or herself or any other person; or
(e)having met or communicated with B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, intentionally travels to meet or meets B with the intention of committing a sexual act with B,
is guilty of the offence of sexual grooming of a child.

19. Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally exposes or displays or causes the exposure or display of—
(a)any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence of child pornography or pornography;
(b)any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence containing a visual presentation, description or representation of a sexual nature of a child, which may be disturbing or harmful to, or age-inappropriate for children, as contemplated in the Films and Publications Act, 1996 (Act No. 65 of 1996), or in terms of any other legislation; or
(c)any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence containing a visual presentation, description or representation of pornography or an act of an explicit sexual nature of a person 18 years or older, which may be disturbing or harmful to, or age-inappropriate, for children, as contemplated in the Films and Publications Act, 1996, or in terms of any other law,
to a child ("B"), with or without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of exposing or displaying or causing the exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to a child.

19A. Offences relating to child pornography

(1)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally creates, makes or produces child pornography in any manner, other than by using a child for child pornography as contemplated in section 20(1), is guilty of an offence.
(2)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally, in any manner assists in, or facilitates the creation, making or production of child pornography, is guilty of an offence.
(3)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally possesses child pornography, is guilty of an offence.
(4)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally, in any manner—
(a)distributes;
(b)makes available;
(c)transmits;
(d)offers for sale;
(e)sells;
(f)offers to procure;
(g)procures;
(h)accesses;
(i)downloads; or
(j)views,
child pornography, is guilty of an offence.
(5)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally, in any manner assists in, or facilitates the—
(a)distribution;
(b)making available;
(c)transmission;
(d)offering for sale;
(e)selling;
(f)offering to procure;
(g)procuring;
(h)accessing;
(i)downloading; or
(j)viewing,
of child pornography, is guilty of an offence.
(6)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally processes or facilitates a financial transaction, knowing that such transaction will facilitate a contravention of subsections (1) to (5), is guilty of an offence.
[section 19A inserted by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]

20. Using children for or benefiting from child pornography

(1)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally uses a child complainant ("B"), with or without the consent of B, whether for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to B or to a third person ("C") or not—
(a)for purposes of creating, making or producing;
(b)by creating, making or producing; or
(c)in any manner assisting to create, make or produce.
any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence in any manner whatsoever of child pornography, is guilty of the offence of using a child for child pornography.
(2)Any person who knowingly and intentionally in any manner whatsoever gains financially from, or receives any favour, benefit, reward, compensation or any other advantage, as the result of the commission of any act contemplated in subsection (1), is guilty of the offence of benefiting from child pornography.
(3)Any person who unlawfully and intentionally—
(a)attends;
(b)views; or
(c)participates in,
a live performance involving child pornography, is guilty of the offence of attending, viewing or participating in, a performance involving child pornography.[subsection (3) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
(4)Any person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally recruits a child complainant ('B'), with or without the consent of B, whether for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to B or a third person ('C') or not, for purposes of—
(a)creating, making or producing of child pornography, is guilty of the offence of recruiting a child for child pornography; or
(b)participating in a live performance involving child pornography, as contemplated in subsection (3), is guilty of the offence of recruiting a child for participating in a live performance involving child pornography.
[subsection (4) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]

Part 3 – Compelling or causing children to witness sexual offences, sexual acts or self-masturbation and exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of genital organs, anus or female breasts ("flashing") to children

21. Compelling or causing children to witness sexual offences, sexual acts or self-masturbation

(1)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, compels or causes a child complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, to be in the presence of or watch A or C while he, she or they commit a sexual offence, is guilty of the offence of compelling or causing a child to witness a sexual offence.
(2)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, compels or causes a child complainant ("B"), without the consent of B, to be in the presence of or watch—
(a)A while he or she engages in a sexual act with C or another person ("D"); or
(b)C while he or she engages in a sexual act with D,
is guilty of the offence of compelling or causing a child to witness a sexual act.
(3)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, compels or causes a child complainant ("B") without the consent of B, to be in the presence of or watch A or C while he or she engages in an act of self-masturbation, is guilty of the offence of compelling or causing a child to witness self-masturbation.

22. Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of genital organs, anus or female breasts to children ("flashing")

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally, whether for the sexual gratification of A or of a third person ("C") or not, exposes or displays or causes the exposure or display of the genital organs, anus or female breasts of A or C to a child complainant ( "B"), with or without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of exposing or displaying or causing the exposure or display of genital organs, anus or female breasts to a child.

Chapter 4
Sexual offences against persons with mental disabilities

Sexual exploitation and sexual grooming of, exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to persons with mental disabilities and using persons with mental disabilities for pornographic purposes or benefiting therefrom

[heading substituted by section 6 of Act 13 of 2021]

23. Sexual exploitation of persons with mental disabilities

(1)A person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally engages the services of a complainant with a mental disability ('B'), for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to B or to a third person ('C')—
(a)for the purpose of engaging in a sexual act with B, irrespective of whether the sexual act is committed or not; or
(b)by committing a sexual act with B,
is, in addition to any other offence which he or she may be convicted of, guilty of the offence of sexual exploitation of a person with a mental disability.
(2)A person ('A') who unlawfully and intentionally offers the services of a person with a mental disability ('B') to a third person ('C'), for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to A, B or to another person ('D')—
(a)for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C;
(b)by inviting, persuading or inducing B to allow C to commit a sexual act with B;
(c)by participating in, being involved in, promoting, encouraging or facilitating the commission of a sexual act with B by C;
(d)by making available, offering or engaging B for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C; or
(e)by detaining B, whether under threat, force, coercion, deception, abuse of power or authority, for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C,
is guilty of an offence of being involved in the sexual exploitation of a person with a mental disability.
(3)A person ('A') who—
(a)intentionally allows or knowingly permits the commission of a sexual act by a third person ('C') with a person with a mental disability ('B') while being a care-giver, parent, guardian, curator or teacher of B; or
(b)owns, leases, rents, manages, occupies or has control of any movable or immovable property and intentionally allows or knowingly permits such movable or immovable property to be used for purposes of the commission of a sexual act with B by C,
is guilty of the offence of furthering the sexual exploitation of a person with a mental disability.
(4)A person ('A') who intentionally receives financial or other reward, favour or compensation from the commission of a sexual act with a person with a mental disability ('B') by a third person ('C'), is guilty of an offence of benefiting from the sexual exploitation of a person with a mental disability.
(5)A person ('A') who intentionally lives wholly or in part on rewards, favours or compensation for the commission of a sexual act with a person with a mental disability ('B') by a third person ('C'), is guilty of an offence of living from the earnings of the sexual exploitation of a person with a mental disability.
(6)A person ('A'), including a juristic person, who—
(a)makes or organises any travel arrangements for or on behalf of a third person ('C'), whether that other person is resident within or outside the borders of the Republic, with the intention of facilitating the commission of any sexual act with a person with a mental disability ('B'), irrespective of whether that act is committed or not; or
(b)prints or publishes, in any manner, any information that is intended to promote or facilitate conduct that would constitute a sexual act with B,
is guilty of an offence of promoting sex tours with persons with mental disabilities.
[section 23 amended by section 3 of Act 6 of 2012 and substituted by section 7 of Act 13 of 2021]

24. Sexual grooming of persons with mental disabilities

[heading substituted by section 8(a) of Act 13 of 2021]
(1)A person ("A") who—
(a)supplies, exposes or displays to a third person ("C")—
(i)an article which is intended to be used in the performance of a sexual act;
(ii)child pornography or pornography; or
(iii)a publication or film,
with the intention to encourage, enable, instruct or persuade C to perform a sexual act with a person with a mental disability ("B"); or
(b)arranges or facilitates a meeting or communication between C and B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, with the intention that C will perform a sexual act with B,
is guilty of the offence of promoting the sexual grooming of a person with a mental disability.[subsection (1) substituted by section 8(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(2)A person ("A") who—
(a)supplies, exposes or displays to a person with a mental disability ("B")—
(i)an article which is intended to be used in the performance of a sexual act;
(ii)child pornography or pornography; or
(iii)a publication or film,
with the intention to encourage, enable, instruct or persuade B to perform such sexual act;[paragraph (a) amended by section 8(c) of Act 13 of 2021]
(b)commits any act with or in the presence of B or who describes the commission of any act to or in the presence of B with the intention to encourage or persuade B or to reduce or diminish any resistance or unwillingness on the part of B to—
(i)perform a sexual act with A or a third person ("C");
(ii)perform an act of self-masturbation in the presence of A or C or while A or C is watching;
(iii)be in the presence of or watch A or C while A or C performs a sexual act or an act of self-masturbation;
(iv)be exposed to child pornography or pornography;
(v)be used for pornographic purposes as contemplated in section 26 (1); or
(vi)expose his or her body, or parts of his or her body to A or C in a manner or in circumstances which violate or offend the sexual integrity or dignity of B;
(c)arranges or facilitates a meeting or communication with B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, with the intention that A will commit a sexual act with B;
(d)having met or communicated with B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, invites, persuades, seduces, induces, entices or coerces B—
(i)to travel to any part of the world in order to meet A with the intention to commit a sexual act with B; or
(ii)during such meeting or communication or any subsequent meeting or communication to—
(aa)commit a sexual act with A;
(bb)discuss, explain or describe the commission of a sexual act; or
(cc)provide A, by means of any form of communication including electronic communication, with any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence of pornography of B himself or herself or any other person; or
(e)having met or communicated with B by any means from, to or in any part of the world, intentionally travels to meet or meets B with the intention of committing a sexual act with B,
is guilty of the offence of sexual grooming of a person with a mental disability.[subsection (2) amended by section 8(d) of Act 13 of 2021]

25. Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to persons with mental disabilities

A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally exposes or displays or causes the exposure or display of any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence of child pornography or pornography to a complainant with a mental disability ("B"), is guilty of the offence of exposing or displaying or causing the exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to a person with a mental disability.[section 25 substituted by section 9 of Act 13 of 2021]

26. Using persons with mental disabilities for pornographic purposes or benefiting therefrom

(1)A person ("A") who unlawfully and intentionally uses a complainant with a mental disability ("B"), whether for financial or other reward, favour or compensation to B or to a third person ("C") or not—
(a)for the purpose of creating, making or producing;
(b)by creating, making or producing; or
(c)in any manner assisting to create, make or produce,
any image, publication, depiction, description or sequence in any manner whatsoever, of pornography or child pornography, is guilty of the offence of using a person with a mental disability for pornographic purposes.
(2)Any person who knowingly and intentionally in any manner whatsoever gains financially from, or receives any favour, benefit, reward, compensation or any other advantage, as the result of the commission of any act contemplated in subsection (1), is guilty of the offence of benefiting from using a person with a mental disability for pornographic purposes.
[section 26 substituted by section 10 of Act 13 of 2021]

Chapter 5
Services for victims of sexual offences and compulsory HIV testing of alleged sex offenders

Part 1 – Definitions and services for victims of sexual offences

27. Definitions

For the purposes of this Chapter, and unless the context indicates otherwise—"application" means an application in terms of section 30 or 32;"body fluid" means any body substance which may contain HIV or any other sexually transmissible infection, but does not include saliva, tears or perspiration;"body specimen" means any body sample which can be tested to determine the presence or absence of HIV infection;"HIV" means the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus;"HIV test" means any validated and medically recognised test for determining the presence or absence of HIV infection in a person;"interested person" means any person who has a material interest in the well-being of a victim, including a spouse, same sex or heterosexual permanent life partner, parent, guardian, family member, care giver, curator, counsellor, medical practitioner, health service provider, social worker or teacher of such victim;"investigating officer" means a member of the South African Police Service responsible for the investigation of an alleged sexual offence or any other offence or any member acting under his or her command;"medical practitioner" means a person registered as a medical practitioner in terms of the Health Professions Act, 1974 (Act No. 56 of 1974), and who, for purposes of section 33, is authorised to take body specimens as contemplated in this Chapter;"nurse" means a person registered as such in terms of any relevant legislation and who, for purposes of section 33, is authorised to take body specimens as contemplated in this Chapter;"offence" means any offence, other than a sexual offence, in which the HIV status of the alleged offender may be relevant for purposes of investigation or prosecution;"PEP" means Post Exposure Prophylaxis;"sexual offence" means a sexual offence in terms of this Act in which the victim may have been exposed to body fluids of the alleged offender; and"victim" means any person alleging that a sexual offence has been perpetrated against him or her.

28. Services for victims relating to Post Exposure Prophylaxis and compulsory HIV testing of alleged sex offenders

(1)If a victim has been exposed to the risk of being infected with HIV as the result of a sexual offence having been committed against him or her, he or she may—
(a)subject to subsection (2)—
(i)receive PEP for HIV infection, at a public health establishment designated from time to time by the cabinet member responsible for health by notice in the Gazette for that purpose under section 29, at State expense and in accordance with the State's prevailing treatment norms and protocols;
(ii)be given free medical advice surrounding the administering of PEP prior to the administering thereof; and
(iii)be supplied with a prescribed list, containing the names, addresses and contact particulars of accessible public health establishments contemplated in section 29(1)(a); and
(b)subject to section 30, apply to a magistrate for an order that the alleged offender be tested for HIV, at State expense.
(2)Only a victim who—
(a)lays a charge with the South African Police Service in respect of an alleged sexual offence; or
(b)reports an incident in respect of an alleged sexual offence in the prescribed manner at a designated health establishment contemplated in subsection (1)(a)(i),
within 72 hours after the alleged sexual offence took place, may receive the services contemplated in subsection (1)(a).
(3)A victim contemplated in subsection (1) or an interested person must—
(a)when or immediately after laying a charge with the South African Police Service or making a report in respect of the alleged sexual offence, in the prescribed manner, be informed by the police official to whom the charge is made or by a medical practitioner or a nurse to whom the incident is reported, as the case may be, of the—
(i)importance of obtaining PEP for HIV infection within 72 hours after the alleged sexual offence took place;
(ii)need to obtain medical advice and assistance regarding the possibility of other sexually transmitted infections; and
(iii)services referred to in subsection (1); and
(b)in the case of an application contemplated in section 30, be handed a notice containing the prescribed information regarding the compulsory HIV testing of the alleged offender and have the contents thereof explained to him or her.

29. Designation of public health establishments for purposes of providing Post Exposure Prophylaxis and carrying out compulsory HIV testing

(1)The cabinet member responsible for health must, by notice in the Gazette, designate any public health establishment for the purposes of—
(a)providing PEP to victims; and
(b)carrying out compulsory HIV testing,
and may, by notice in the Gazette, withdraw any designation under this section, after giving 14 days’ prior notice of such withdrawal in the Gazette.
(2)The first notice in terms of subsection (1) must be published within two months of the implementation of this section, and at least at intervals of six months thereafter.
(3)The Director-General: Justice and Constitutional Development must, within 14 days of publication of each designation or withdrawal thereof contemplated in subsection (1), provide a copy of the notice to—
(a)the relevant role-players falling under his or her jurisdiction; and
(b)the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service, the National Commissioner of Correctional Services and the Director-General of Health.
(4)The National Commissioner of the South African Police Service, National Commissioner of Correctional Services and Director-General of Health must distribute the notice referred to in subsection (1) to all relevant role-players falling under his or her jurisdiction.

Part 2 – Application for compulsory HIV testing of alleged sex offender by victim

30. Application by victim or interested person for HIV testing of alleged sex offender

(1)
(a)Within 90 days after the alleged commission of a sexual offence any victim or any interested person on behalf of a victim, may apply to a magistrate, in the prescribed form, for an order that—
(i)the alleged offender be tested for HIV and that the results thereof be disclosed to the victim or interested person, as the case may be, and to the alleged offender; or
(ii)the HIV test results in respect of the alleged offender, obtained on application by a police official as contemplated in section 32, be disclosed to the victim or interested person, as the case may be.
(b)If the application is brought by an interested person, such application must be brought with the written consent of the victim, unless the victim is—
(i)under the age of 14 years;
(ii)a person with a mental disability;[subparagraph (ii) substituted by section 11 of Act 13 of 2021]
(iii)unconscious;
(iv)a person in respect of whom a curator has been appointed in terms of an order of court; or
(v)a person whom the magistrate is satisfied is unable to provide the required consent.
(2)
(a)Every application must—
(i)state that a sexual offence was committed against the victim by the alleged offender;
(ii)confirm that the alleged offence has been reported as contemplated in section 28(2);
(iii)state that the victim may have been exposed to the risk of being infected with HIV as a result of the alleged sexual offence;
(iv)if it is brought by an interested person, state the nature of the relationship between the interested person and the victim, and if the interested person is not the spouse, same sex or heterosexual permanent life partner or a parent of the victim, the reason why the application is being made by such interested person; and
(v)state that less than 90 days have elapsed from the date on which it is alleged that the offence in question took place.
(b)The matters referred to in paragraph (a) must be verified by the victim or the interested person, as the case may be, by affidavit or solemn declaration.
(3)The application must be made as soon as possible after a charge has been laid, and may be made before or after an arrest has been effected.
(4)The application must be handed to the investigating officer, who must, as soon as is reasonably practicable, submit the application to a magistrate of the magisterial district in which the sexual offence is alleged to have occurred.

31. Consideration of application by magistrate and issuing of order

(1)The magistrate must, as soon as is reasonably practicable, consider the application contemplated in section 30, in chambers and may call for such additional evidence as he or she deems fit, including oral evidence or evidence by affidavit, which must form part of the record of the proceedings.
(2)
(a)For the purpose of the proceedings contemplated in subsection (1), the magistrate may consider evidence by or on behalf of the alleged offender if, to do so, will not give rise to any substantial delay.
(b)Evidence contemplated in paragraph (a) may be adduced in the absence of the victim, if the magistrate is of the opinion that it is in the best interests of the victim to do so.
(3)If the magistrate is satisfied that there is prima facie evidence that—
(a)a sexual offence has been committed against the victim by the alleged offender;
(b)the victim may have been exposed to the body fluids of the alleged offender; and
(c)no more than 90 calendar days have lapsed from the date on which it is alleged that the offence in question look place,
the magistrate must—
(i)in the case where the alleged offender has not been tested for HIV on application by a police official as contemplated in section 32, order that the alleged offender be tested for HIV in accordance with the State's prevailing norms and protocols, including where necessary—
(aa)the collection from the alleged offender of two prescribed body specimens; and
(bb)the performance on the body specimens of one or more HIV tests as are reasonably necessary to determine the presence or absence of HIV infection in the alleged offender,
and that the HIV test results be disclosed in the prescribed manner to the victim or interested person, as the case may be, and to the alleged offender; or
(ii)in the case where the alleged offender has already been tested for HIV on application by a police official as contemplated in section 32, order that the HIV test results be disclosed in the prescribed manner to the victim or interested person, as the case may be.
(4)An order referred to in subsection (3) must be made in the prescribed manner and handed to the investigating officer.
(5)The investigating officer must, as soon as is reasonably practicable, after an application has been considered—
(a)inform the victim or interested person, as the case may be, of the outcome of the application; and
(b)if an order has been granted in terms of subsection (3), inform the alleged offender thereof by handing to him or her a notice containing the information as prescribed and, if necessary, by explaining the contents of the notice.

Part 3 – Application for compulsory HIV testing of alleged offender by investigating officer

32. Application by investigating officer for HIV testing of alleged offender

(1)An investigating officer may, subject to subsection (2), for purposes of investigating a sexual offence or offence apply in the prescribed form to a magistrate of the magisterial district in which the sexual offence or offence is alleged to have occurred, in chambers, for an order that—
(a)the alleged offender be tested for HIV; or
(b)the HIV test results in respect of the alleged offender, already obtained on application by a victim or any interested person on behalf of a victim as contemplated in section 30(1)(a)(i), be made available to the investigating officer or, where applicable, to a prosecutor who needs to know the results for purposes of the prosecution of the matter in question or any other court proceedings.
(2)An application contemplated in subsection (1) must—
(a)set out the grounds, on the strength of information taken on oath or by way of solemn declaration, in which it is alleged that a sexual offence or offence was committed by the alleged offender; and
(b)be made after a charge has been laid, and may be made before or after an arrest has been effected, or after conviction.
(3)If the magistrate is satisfied that there is prima facie evidence that—
(a)a sexual offence or offence has been committed by the offender; and
(b)HIV testing would appear to be necessary for purposes of investigating or prosecuting the offence,
the magistrate must, in the case of an application contemplated in subsection (1)(a), order that the alleged offender be tested for HIV in accordance with the State's prevailing norms and protocols, including, where necessary—
(i)the collection from the alleged offender of two prescribed body specimens; and
(ii)the performance on the body specimens of one or more HIV tests as are reasonably necessary to determine the presence or absence of HIV infection in the alleged offender,
and that the HIV test results be disclosed in the prescribed manner to the investigating officer or, where applicable, to a prosecutor who needs to know the results for purposes of the prosecution of the matter in question or any other court proceedings and to the alleged offender, if the results have not already been made available to such offender as contemplated in section 30(1)(a)(i).
(4)An order contemplated in subsection (3) must be made in the prescribed manner and handed to the investigating officer.
(5)The investigating officer must, as soon as is reasonably practicable, after an application has been granted in terms of subsection (3), inform the alleged offender by handing to him or her a notice containing the information as prescribed and, if necessary, by explaining the contents of the notice.

Part 4 – Execution of orders for compulsory HIV testing and results of HIV tests

33. Execution of order and issuing of warrant of arrest

(1)As soon as an order referred to in section 31(3) or section 32(3) has been handed to an investigating officer—
(a)the investigating officer must request any medical practitioner or nurse to take two prescribed body specimens from the alleged offender, and the investigating officer must make the alleged offender available or cause such person to be made available for that purpose;
(b)the medical practitioner or nurse concerned must take two prescribed body specimens from the alleged offender;
(c)the investigating officer must deliver the body specimens to the head of a public health establishment designated in terms of section 29 or to a person designated in writing by the head of such establishment;
(d)the head of the establishment or the person referred to in paragraph (c) must—
(i)perform one or more HIV tests on the body specimens of the alleged offender as are reasonably necessary to determine the presence or absence of HIV infection in the alleged offender;
(ii)record the results of the HIV test in the prescribed manner;
(iii)provide the investigating officer with duplicate sealed records of the test results; and
(iv)retain one sealed record of the test results in the prescribed manner and place; and
(e)the investigating officer must—
(i)in the case of an order contemplated in section 31(3), hand over to the victim or to the interested person, as the case may be, and to the alleged offender the sealed record of the test results and a notice containing prescribed information on the confidentiality of and how to deal with the HIV test results, and if necessary explain the contents of the notice; or
(ii)in the case of an order contemplated in section 32(3), hand over to the alleged offender a sealed record of the test results and a notice containing prescribed information on how to deal with the test results, and if necessary explain the contents of the notice, and retain the other record of the test results as prescribed or, where applicable, make the record of the test results available to a prosecutor who needs to know the results for purposes of the prosecution of the matter in question or any other court proceedings.
(2)
(a)An order made in terms of section 31(3) lapses if the charge is withdrawn by the prosecution at the request of the victim.
(b)Any specimens taken or results obtained prior to the lapsing of the order, if any, as contemplated in paragraph (a), must be destroyed in accordance with the Department of Health's prevailing norms and protocols or where relevant, in accordance with any national instructions issued by the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service in terms of section 66(1)(c).
(3)The magistrate may, when or after issuing an order contemplated in section 31(3) or 32(3), issue a warrant for the arrest of the alleged offender if there is reason to believe that such offender may avoid compliance with such order or such offender has avoided compliance with such order.

34. Use of results of HIV tests

The results of an HIV test, performed in terms of an order contemplated in sections 31(3) and 32(3), may only be used in the following circumstances:
(a)to inform a victim or an interested person whether or not the alleged offender in the case in question is infected with HIV with the view to—
(i)reducing secondary trauma and empowering the victim to make informed medical, lifestyle and other personal decisions; or
(ii)using the test results as evidence in any ensuing civil proceedings as a result of the sexual offence in question; or
(b)to enable an investigating officer to gather information with the view to using it as evidence in criminal proceedings.

Part 5 – Miscellaneous

35. Register of applications and orders

(1)The National Commissioner of the South African Police Service must cause all applications made, and all orders granted, in terms of this Chapter, to be recorded in a register and kept in the manner determined by the National Commissioner as prescribed.
(2)Access to the register must be limited as prescribed

36. Confidentiality of outcome of application

The fact that an order for HIV testing of an alleged offender has been granted as contemplated in section 31 or section 32 may not be communicated to any person other than—
(a)the victim or an interested person referred to in section 30;
(b)the alleged offender;
(c)the investigating officer and, where applicable, to—
(i)a prosecutor; or
(ii)subject to section 35(2), any other person who needs to know the test results for purposes of any criminal investigations or proceedings or any civil proceedings; and
(d)the persons who are required to execute the order as contemplated in section 33.

37. Confidentiality of HIV test results obtained

(1)The results of the HIV tests performed on an alleged offender in terms of this Chapter may, subject to subsection (2), be communicated only to—
(a)the victim or the interested person referred to in section 30;
(b)the alleged offender; and
(c)the investigating officer and, where applicable, to—
(i)a prosecutor if the alleged offender is tested as contemplated in section 32; or
(ii)any other person who needs to know the test results for purposes of any civil proceedings or an order of a court.
(2)A presiding officer, in any proceedings contemplated in this Chapter or in any ensuing criminal or civil proceedings, may make any order he or she deems appropriate in order to give effect to this section, including the manner in which such results are to be kept confidential and the manner in which the court record in question is to be dealt with.

38. Offences and penalties

(1)
(a)Any person who, with malicious intent lays a charge with the South African Police Service in respect of an alleged sexual offence and makes an application in terms of section 30(1), with the intention of ascertaining the HIV status of any person, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years.
(b)Any person who with malicious intent or who in a grossly negligent manner discloses the results of any HIV tests in contravention of section 37, is guilty of an offence and is liable to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years.
(c)The institution of a prosecution for an offence referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) must be authorised in writing by the relevant Director of Public Prosecutions.
(2)An alleged offender who, in any manner whatsoever, fails or refuses to comply with or avoids compliance with, or deliberately frustrates any attempt to serve on himself or herself, an order of court that he or she be tested for HIV, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years.

39. Regulations

(1)The Minister, after consultation with the cabinet members responsible for safety and security and health, may make regulations regarding—
(a)any form required to be prescribed in terms of this Chapter;
(b)any matter necessary or required to be prescribed in terms of this Chapter; and
(c)any other matter the Minister deems to be necessary or expedient to achieve the objects of this Chapter.
(2)Any regulation made in terms of subsection (1) must be—
(a)submitted to Parliament at least 30 days before publication in the Gazette; and
(b)made after consultation with the cabinet members responsible for safety and security and health, except for the matter prescribed in section 35, which must be made in consultation with the cabinet member responsible for safety and security.

Chapter 6
National register for sex offenders

40. Definitions

For purposes of this Chapter, and unless the context indicates otherwise—"certificate" means a certificate contemplated in section 44;"employee" means—(a)any person who applies to work for or works for an employer, and who receives, or is entitled to receive, any remuneration, reward, favour or benefit; or(b)any person, other than a person contemplated in (a), who in any manner applies to assist or assists in carrying on or conducting the business of an employer, whether or not he or she is entitled to receive any remuneration, reward, favour or benefit;"employer" means—(a)any—(i)department of state or administration in the national or provincial sphere of government or any municipality in the local sphere of government; or(ii)other functionary or institution when exercising a power or performing a duty in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, or a provincial constitution or exercising a public power or performing a public function in terms of any legislation,which employs employees who, in any manner and during the course of their employment, will be placed in a position to work with a person who is vulnerable or in a position of authority, supervision or care of a person who is vulnerable; or(b)any person, organisation, institution, club, sports club, association or body who or which, as the case may be—(i)employs employees who, in any manner and during the course of their employment, will be placed in a position of authority, supervision or care of a person who is vulnerable or working with a person who is vulnerable; or(ii)owns, manages, operates, has any business or economic interest in or is in any manner responsible for, or participates or assists in the management or operation of any entity or business concern or trade relating to the supervision over or care of or working with a person who is vulnerable,and 'employ', 'employing', 'employed' and 'employment relationship' have corresponding meanings;[definition of "employer" substituted by section 12(a) of Act 13 of 2021]"licencing authority" means any authority which is responsible for granting licences or approving the management or operation of any entity, business concern or trade relating to the supervision over or care of a person who is vulnerable;[definition of "licencing authority" substituted by section 12(b) of Act 13 of 2021]"person who is vulnerable" means a—(a)child or a person with a mental disability;(b)female under the age of 25 years who—(i)receives tuition at a higher education college, higher education institution or university college as defined in section 1 of the Higher Education Act, 1997 (Act No. 101 of 1997);(ii)receives vocational training at any training institute, other than the institutions referred to in subparagraph (i), or as part of their employment; or(iii)lives in a building, structure or facility used primarily as a residence for any of the persons referred to in subparagraphs (i) and (ii);(c)person who is being cared for or sheltered in a facility that provides services to victims of crime;(d)person with a physical, intellectual or sensory disability and who—(i)receives community-based care and support services, other than from a family member for;(ii)lives in a building, structure or facility used primarily as a residence for; or(iii)is cared for in a facility providing 24-hour care to,persons with physical, intellectual or sensory disabilities; or(e)person who is 60 years of age or older and who—(i)receives community-based care and support services, other than from a family member for;(ii)lives in a building, structure or facility used primarily as a residence for; or(iii)is cared for in a facility providing 24-hour care to, such persons;[definition of "person who is vulnerable" inserted by section 12(c) of Act 13 of 2021]"licensing authority" means any authority which is responsible for granting licences or approving the management or operation of any entity, business concern or trade relating to the supervision over or care of a child or a person who is mentally disabled;"Register" means the National Register for Sex Offenders established under section 42(1);"Registrar" means the Registrar of the National Register for Sex Offenders contemplated in section 42(2); and"relevant authority" means any—(a)department of state or administration in the national or provincial sphere of government or any municipality in the local sphere of government; or(b)other functionary or institution when exercising a power or performing a duty in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, or a provincial constitution or exercising a public power or performing a public function in terms of any legislation,which is tasked with considering applications from prospective foster parents, kinship care-givers, temporary safe care-givers, adoptive parents or curators;"sexual offence" means—(a)any—(i)sexual offence in terms of the law as it existed between 16 June 2003 and 15 December 2007;(ii)offence referred to in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 and sections 55 and 71 of this Act;(iii)offence referred to in Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2013, which was committed for sexual purposes; and(iv)contravention since 16 June 2003 of section 24B(1) or (3) of the Films and Publications Act, 1996 (Act No. 65 of 1996),that was committed against a child or a person with a mental disability between the period of 16 June 2003 and the date of; and(b)any—(i)offence referred to in sections 3 to 10, 12 to 26 and 55 of this Act;(ii)offence referred to in Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2013, which was committed for sexual purposes; and(iii)contravention since 16 June 2003 of section 24B(1) or (3) of the Films and Publications Act, 1996;that was committed after the date of,the commencement of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act Amendment Act, 2021.[definition of "sexual offence" inserted by section 12(d) of Act 13 of 2021]"sexual offence against a child" [definition of "sexual offence against a child" added by section 36 of Act 8 of 2017 and deleted by section 12(e) of Act 13 of 2021]

41. Prohibition on certain types of employment by certain persons who have committed sexual offences

A person who has been convicted of the commission of a sexual offence or is alleged to have committed a sexual offence and has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977), whether committed before or after the commencement of this Chapter, whether committed in or outside the Republic, and whose particulars have been included in the Register, may not—
(a)be employed to work with a person who is vulnerable in any circumstances;
(b)hold any position, related to his or her employment, or for any commercial benefit which in any manner places him or her in any position of authority, supervision or care of a person who is vulnerable, or which, in any other manner, places him or her in a position of authority, supervision or care of a person who is vulnerable;
(c)be granted a licence or be given approval to manage or operate any entity, business concern or trade in relation to the supervision over or care of a person who is vulnerable; or
(d)become the foster parent, kinship care-giver, temporary safe care-giver or adoptive parent of a child or the curator of a person with a mental disability.
[section 41 substituted by section 13 of Act 13 of 2021]

42. Establishment of National Register for Sex Offenders and designation of Registrar of Register

(1)A National Register for Sex Offenders containing particulars of persons convicted of any sexual offence or are alleged to have committed a sexual offence and who have been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, whether committed before or after the commencement of this Chapter and whether committed in or outside the Republic, must, in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter and the regulations made thereunder, be established and maintained by the Minister.[subsection (1) substituted by section 36 of Act 66 of 2008 and by section 14(a) of Act 13 of 2021]
(2)The Minister must designate a fit and proper person, with due regard to his or her experience, conscientiousness and integrity, as the Registrar of the National Register for Sex Offenders,
(3)
(a)The Registrar must exercise and perform his or her powers, duties and functions subject to the provisions of this Chapter and the regulations made thereunder.
(b)The Registrar may, subject to paragraph (c), delegate any power, duty or function to any other person, but the Registrar remains responsible and accountable for the exercise of the powers and the performance of the duties and functions so delegated.
(c)The Registrar may not delegate his or her function referred to in section 51 to any other person.
[subsection (3) substituted by section 14(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(4)Any person may, subject to subsection (5), apply, in the prescribed form, to the Registrar to determine whether the particulars of any person have been included in the Register or not.[subsection (4) added by section 14(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(5)The Registrar in considering the application must be satisfied that the—
(a)application is not frivolous or vexatious;
(b)person who has submitted the application has an interest in the disclosure of the information; and
(c)disclosure of the information is in the interest of an identifiable vulnerable person.
[subsection (5) added by section 14(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(6)Except in so far as it may be necessary for the purposes of this Chapter, any person who willfully discloses or publishes any information to any other person which he or she has acquired as a result of an application contemplated in subsection (4) or in any other manner, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.[subsection (6) added by section 14(b) of Act 13 of 2021]

43. Objects of Register

The objects of the Register are to protect persons who are vulnerable against sexual offenders by—
(a)establishing and maintaining a record of persons who—
(i)have been convicted of a sexual offence, whether committed before or after the commencement of this Chapter and whether committed in or outside the Republic; or[subparagraph (i) substituted by section 15(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(ii)are alleged to have committed a sexual offence in respect of whom a court, whether before or after the commencement of this Chapter—
(aa)in the Republic has made a finding and given a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977; or
(bb)outside the Republic has made a finding and given a direction contemplated in subparagraph (aa) in terms of the law of the country in question:
[subparagraph (ii) amended by section 15(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(b)informing an employer applying for a certificate as contemplated in this Chapter whether or not the particulars of an employee contemplated in section 45(1)(a) or (b) are contained in the Register;
(c)informing a licensing authority applying for a certificate as contemplated in this Chapter whether or not the particulars of an applicant contemplated in section 47 are contained in the Register; and
(d)informing the relevant authorities dealing with fostering, kinship care-giving, temporary safe care-giving, adoption or curatorship applying for a certificate as contemplated in this Chapter whether or not the particulars of an applicant, as contemplated in section 48, have been included in the Register.
[section 43 amended by section 15(a) of Act 13 of 2021]

44. Persons entitled to apply for certificate

An application for a prescribed certificate, stating whether or not the particulars of a person mentioned in the application are recorded in the Register may, solely for the purpose of complying with any obligation under this Chapter, be made in the prescribed manner by—
(a)an employer in respect of an employee as contemplated in section 45(1);
(b)a licensing authority in respect of an applicant as contemplated in section 47(1);
(c)a relevant authority in respect of an applicant as contemplated in section 48(1);
(d)an employee contemplated in section 46(1) and (2) in respect of his or her own particulars;
(e)a person contemplated in section 47(2) applying for a licence or approval to manage or operate any entity, business concern or trade in relation to the supervision over or care of persons who are vulnerable in respect of his or her own particulars;[paragraph (e) substituted by section 16 of Act 13 of 2021]
(f)a person contemplated in section 48(2) applying to become a foster parent, kinship care-giver, temporary safe care-giver or adoptive parent in respect of his or her own particulars; or
(g)any person whose particulars appear on the Register in respect of his or her own particulars.

44A. Enquiries for purposes of expungement applications in terms of Criminal Procedure Act, 1977

(1)For the purposes of section 271B of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977), the Director-General: Justice and Constitutional Development may enquire from the Registrar whether or not the particulars of a person are contained in the Register and whether or not that person’s particulars have been removed from the Register in terms of section 51(1) or (3)(c), as the case may be.
(2)Subject to section 52, the Registrar must respond to the enquiry contemplated in subsection (1) in writing within 21 working days and must indicate whether or not the particulars of the person concerned are contained in the Register or whether or not that person’s particulars have been removed from the Register in terms of section 51(1) or (3)(c), as the case may be.
[section 44A inserted by section 32 of Act 42 of 2013]

44B. Access to Register by National Commissioner of South African Police Service

For the purposes of section 36D(2) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, and section 15A(2) of the South African Police Service Act, 1995 (Act No. 65 of 1995), the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service may be granted access to the data base of the Register by the Registrar.[section 44B inserted by section 17 of Act 13 of 2021]

44C. Obligations of Director-General: Home Affairs and Registrar

(1)The Director-General: Home Affairs must inform the Registrar in writing whenever a person’s change in identity has been formally approved and recognised by the Department of Home Affairs by providing the Registrar with that person’s old and new identity details.
(2)The Registrar must endorse the Register accordingly, where necessary.
[section 44C inserted by section 17 of Act 13 of 2021]

45. Obligations of employers in respect of employees

(1)Any employer who—
(a)at the date of commencement of this Chapter, has in his or her employment any employee, may from the date of establishment of the Register, in the prescribed manner, apply to the Registrar for a prescribed certificate, stating whether or not the particulars of the employee are recorded in the Register; or
(b)from the date of establishment of the Register, intends employing an employee, must, in the prescribed manner, apply to the Registrar for a prescribed certificate, stating whether or not the particulars of the potential employee are recorded in the Register.
(2)
(a)An employer shall—
(i)subject to paragraph (d) not continue to employ an employee contemplated in subsection (1)(a); or
(ii)not employ an employee contemplated in subsection (1)(b),
whose particulars are recorded in the Register.
(b)An employer who, during the course of an employment relationship, ascertains that the particulars of an employee contemplated in subsection (1)(a) has been recorded in the Register, irrespective of whether such offence was committed during the course of his or her employment, must, subject to paragraph (d) immediately terminate the employment of such employee.
(c)Notwithstanding paragraph (d) an employer must immediately terminate the employment of an employee who fails to disclose a conviction of a sexual offence or that he or she is alleged to have committed a sexual offence and who has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, as contemplated in section 41.[paragraph (c) substituted by section 18 of Act 13 of 2021]
(d)An employer must take reasonable steps to prevent an employee whose particulars are recorded in the Register from continuing to gain access to a person who is vulnerable, in the course of his or her employment, including, if reasonably possible or practicable to transfer such person from the post or position occupied by him or her to another post or position: Provided that if any such steps to be taken will not ensure the safety of a person who is vulnerable, the employment relationship, the use of services or access, as the case may be, must be terminated immediately.[paragraph (d) substituted by section 18 of Act 13 of 2021]
(3)An employer who fails to comply with any provision of this section, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.

46. Obligations of employees

(1)An employee in the employ of an employer at the commencement of this Chapter, who is or was convicted of a sexual offence, or is alleged to have committed a sexual offence and who has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, irrespective of whether or not such offence was committed or allegedly committed during the course of his or her employment, and whose particulars are included or are to be included in the Register, must without delay disclose such conviction or finding to his or her employer.[subsection (1) substituted by section 4(a) of Act 5 of 2015 and by section 19 of Act 13 of 2021]
(2)An employee who, after the commencement of this Chapter, applies for employment, must, if he or she has been convicted of a sexual offence or is alleged to have committed a sexual offence and who has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, and whose particulars are included or are to be included in the Register, disclose such conviction or finding when applying for employment.[subsection (2) substituted by section 4(b) of Act 5 of 2015 and by section 19 of Act 13 of 2021]
(3)An employee who fails to comply with subsection (1) or (2), is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment not exceeding seven years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.

47. Obligations in respect of licence applications

(1)A licensing authority may not grant a licence to or approve the management or operation of any entity, business concern or trade in relation to the supervision over or care of a person who is vulnerable without having determined, by way of an application to the Registrar for a prescribed certificate, whether or not the particulars of such person have been recorded in the Register.[subsection (1) substituted by section 20 of Act 13 of 2021]
(2)A person who, after the commencement of this Chapter, applies for a licence contemplated in subsection (1) to a licensing authority, and whose particulars are included or are to be included in the Register, must disclose that he or she has been convicted of a sexual offence or that he or she is alleged to have committed a sexual offence and has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977.[subsection (2) substituted by section 5 of Act 5 of 2015 and by section 20 of Act 13 of 2021]
(3)Any licensing authority or person who intentionally contravenes any provision of this section, is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.

48. Obligations in respect of applications for fostering, kinship care-giving, temporary safe care-giving, adoption of children or curatorship

(1)A relevant authority may not consider an application or approve the appointment of a person as a foster parent, kinship care-giver, temporary safe care-giver, an adoptive parent or curator without having determined, by way of an application to the Registrar for a prescribed certificate, whether or not the particulars of such person have been recorded in the Register.
(2)
(a)A person who, after the commencement of this Chapter, applies to become a foster parent, kinship care-giver, temporary safe care-giver, an adoptive parent or curator, and whose particulars are included or are to be included in the Register, must disclose that he or she has been convicted of a sexual offence or that he or she is alleged to have committed a sexual offence and has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977.
(b)A person referred to in paragraph (a) who fails to comply with paragraph (a), is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment not exceeding seven years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.
(c)A child who is in the custody and care of a person contemplated in paragraph (a) must, as soon as reasonably possible, be removed from the care of such person in accordance with Chapter 9 of the Children’s Act, 2005 (Act No. 38 of 2005).
[subsection (2) substituted by section 6 of Act 5 of 2015 and by section 21 of Act 13 of 2021]
(3)Any relevant authority or person who intentionally contravenes any provision of this section, is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.

49. Contents of Register

The Register must—
(a)be established and maintained in the prescribed manner and format;
(b)contain the following particulars of persons referred to in section 50:
(i)The title, full names and surname of the person, including any known alias or nickname and, where applicable, the profession or trade of the person;
(ii)the last known physical address of the person, and any other contact details, including a postal address, where applicable;
(iii)the identity number, passport number and driver’s licence number of the person, where applicable;
(iv)the sexual offence in respect of which the person has been convicted, the sentence imposed, the date and place of conviction and sentence, as well as the relevant prisoner identification number, where applicable;[subparagraph (iv) substituted by section 22 of Act 13 of 2021]
(v)the court in which the trial took place and the case number;
(vi)the name of the medical institution or medical practitioner of a person and details of the sexual offence allegedly committed by a person who has been dealt with in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977; and
(vii)any other particulars as may be prescribed by regulation; and
(c)if the conviction and sentence took place in a foreign jurisdiction, contain as far as possible the equivalent information as is contemplated in paragraph (b), as obtained from the relevant country or any other legal source.

50. Persons whose names must be included in Register and related matters

(1)The particulars of the following persons must be included in the Register:
(a)A person who—
(i)has been convicted of a sexual offence;
(ii)is alleged to have committed a sexual offence in respect of whom a court, has made a finding and given a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977;
(iii)is serving a sentence of imprisonment or who has served a sentence of imprisonment as the result of a conviction for a sexual offence; or
(iv)has a previous conviction for a sexual offence or who has not served a sentence of imprisonment for such offence; and
(b)any person—
(i)who, in any foreign jurisdiction, has been convicted of any offence equivalent to the commission of a sexual offence;
(ii)who, in any foreign jurisdiction, has been dealt with in a manner equivalent to that contemplated in paragraph (a)(ii); or
(iii)whose particulars appear on an official register in any foreign jurisdiction, pursuant to a conviction of a sexual offence or as a result of an order equivalent to that in paragraph (a)(ii),
whether committed before or after the commencement of this Chapter.[subsection (1) substituted by section 23(a) of Act 13 of 2021]
(2)
(a)A court that has—
(i)convicted a person of a sexual offence and, after sentence has been imposed by that court for such offence, in the presence of the convicted person; or
(ii)made a finding and given a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, that the person is by reason of mental illness or mental defect not capable of understanding the proceedings so as to make a proper defence or was, by reason of mental illness or mental defect, not criminally responsible for the act which constituted a sexual offence, in the presence of that person,
must, subject to paragraph (c) make an order that the particulars of the person be included in the Register.[paragraph (a) substituted by section 7(a) of Act 5 of 2015 and by section 23(b) of Act 13 of 2021]
(b)When making an order contemplated in paragraph (a), the court must explain the contents and implications of such an order, including section 45, to the person in question.
(c)If a court has, in terms of this Act or any other law, convicted a person ('A') of a sexual offence and A was a child at the time of the commission of such offence, or if a court has made a finding and given a direction referred to in paragraph (a)(ii) in respect of A who was a child at the time of the alleged commission of the offence, the court may not make an order as contemplated in paragraph (a) unless—
(i)the prosecutor has made an application to the court for such order;
(ii)the court has considered a report by the probation officer referred to in section 71 of the Child Justice Act, 2008, which deals with the probability of A committing another sexual offence in future;
(iii)A has been given the opportunity to address the court as to why his or her particulars should not be included in the Register; and
(iv)the court is satistied that substantial and compelling circumstances exist based upon such report and any other evidence, which justify the making of such an order.
[paragraph (c) added by section 7(b) of Act 5 of 2015 and substituted by section 23(c) of Act 13 of 2021]
(d)In the event that a court finds that substantial and compelling circumstances exist which justify the making of an order as contemplated in paragraph (a), the court must enter such circumstances on the record of the proceedings.[paragraph (d) added by section 7(b) of Act 5 of 2015]
(3)Where a court has made an order under subsection (2)(a), the Registrar of the High Court or clerk of the magistrate’s court must, where possible notify the employer in the prescribed manner, of such order and must forthwith forward the order to the Registrar, together with all the particulars referred to in section 49 of the person in question, and the Registrar must immediately and provisionally, in the prescribed manner, enter the particulars of the person concerned in the Register, pending the outcome of any appeal or review and must, after—
(a)the period for noting an appeal or taking the matter on review has expired; or
(b)the appeal or review proceedings have been concluded in the case of an appeal or review,
either enter or remove such particulars from the Register, depending on the outcome of the appeal or review, if any.
(4)Where a court, for whatever reason, fails to make an order under subsection (2)(a), in respect of any person other than a person referred to in subsection (2)(c), the prosecuting authority or any person must immediately or at any other time bring this omission to the attention of the court and the court must make such order.[subsection (4) substituted by section 7(c) of Act 5 of 2015]
(5)
(a)The National Commissioner of Correctional Services must, in the prescribed manner, forward to the Registrar the particulars referred to in section 49 of every prisoner or former prisoner which he or she has on record, who, at the commencement of this Chapter, is serving a sentence of imprisonment or who has served a sentence of imprisonment as the result of a conviction for a sexual offence, as referred to in paragraph (a) of the definition of ‘sexual offence’ in section 40, five years preceding the commencement of this Chapter, and the Registrar must forthwith enter those particulars in the Register.[paragraph (a) substituted by section 37(a) of Act 8 of 2017 and by section 23(d) of Act 13 of 2021]
(b)The National Commissioner of Correctional Services must, in the prescribed manner and period, inform each serving prisoner whose particulars have been forwarded to the Registrar of the implications thereof.
[subsection (5) substituted by section 37 of Act 66 of 2008]
(6)The National Commissioner of the South African Police Service must, in the prescribed manner, forward to the Registrar all the available particulars in his or her possession referred to in section 49 of every person who, at the commencement of this Chapter, has a previous conviction for a sexual offence, as referred to in paragraph (a) of the deſnition of ‘sexual offence’in section 40, five years preceding the commencement of this Chapter, and the Registrar must forthwith enter those particulars in the Register.[subsection (6) substituted by section 37 of Act 66 of 2008, by section 37(b) of Act 8 of 2017 and by section 23(e) of Act 13 of 2021]
(7)
(a)The Director-General: Health must, in the prescribed manner, forward to the Registrar the particulars referred to in section 49 or every person, who, at the commencement of this Chapter or in the period of five years preceding the commencement of this Chapter, is or was subject to a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, as the result of an act which constituted a sexual offence, as referred to in paragraph (a) of the definition of ‘sexual offence’ in section 40, and the Registrar must forthwith enter those particulars in the Register.[paragraph (a) substituted by section 37(c) of Act 8 of 2017 and by section 23(f) of Act 13 of 2021]
(b)The Director-General: Health must, in the prescribed manner and period, inform each person referred to in paragraph (a) whose particulars have been forwarded to the Registrar of the implications thereof.
[subsection (7) substituted by section 37 of Act 66 of 2008]
(8)
(a)A person whose particulars have been submitted to the Registrar in terms of this section and whose name or names, sex, identity number, physical or postal address or other details as contemplated in section 49 have changed, must notify the Registrar of any such change within 14 days after such change.
(b)Any person referred to in paragraph (a) who intentionally fails to notify the Registrar of any change contemplated in that paragraph, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven years.

51. Removal of particulars from Register

(1)Subject to subsections (2), (2A) and (3), the particulars of a person—
(a)who—
(i)has been sentenced for a conviction of a sexual offence to a term of imprisonment, periodical imprisonment, correctional supervision or to imprisonment as contemplated in section 276(1)(i) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, without the option of a fine for a period of at least six months but not exceeding eighteen months, whether the sentence was suspended or not, may, on application as contemplated in subsection (3), be removed from the Register after a period of 20 years has lapsed after that person has been released from prison or the period of suspension has lapsed;
(ii)has been sentenced for a conviction of a sexual offence to a term of imprisonment, periodical imprisonment, correctional supervision or to imprisonment as contemplated in section 276(1)(i) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, without the option of a fine for a period of six months or less, whether the sentence was suspended or not, may, on application as contemplated in subsection (3), be removed from the Register after a period of 14 years has lapsed after that person has been released from prison or the period of suspension has lapsed; or
(iii)is alleged to have committed a sexual offence in respect of whom a court, whether before or after the commencement of this Chapter, has made a finding and given a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, may, on application as contemplated in subsection (3), be removed from the Register after a period of ten years has lapsed after such person has recovered from the mental illness or mental defect in question and is discharged in terms of the Mental Health Care Act, 2002 (Act No. 17 of 2002), from any restrictions imposed on him or her; or
(b)who has been sentenced for a conviction of a sexual offence to any other form of lesser punishment or court order may, on application as contemplated in subsection (3), be removed from the Register after a period of ten years has lapsed since the particulars of that person were included in the Register.
[subsection (1) amended by section 8(a) of Act 5 of 2015]
(2)The particulars of a person who has—
(a)been sentenced for a conviction of a sexual offence to a term of imprisonment, periodical imprisonment, correctional supervision or to imprisonment as contemplated in section 276(1)(i) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, with or without the option of a fine for a period exceeding 18 months, whether the sentence was suspended or not; or
(b)two or more convictions of a sexual offence,
may not be removed from the Register.
(2A)A person falling into the categories contemplated in subsection (1) or (2), who was a child at the time of the commission of the offence concerned and who was convicted of such offence or a person who was a child at the time of the alleged commission of the offence and in respect of whom a court has made a finding and given a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977—
(a)before the implementation of this Chapter, may, at any time before the expiration of the periods referred to in subsection (1), apply to a court for an order that his or her particulars must be removed from the Register by—
(i)addressing the court on the reasons for such application and showing good cause why it is unlikely that he or she will commit another sexual offence; and
(ii)submitting to the court an affidavit by him or her stating that no charge relating to a sexual offence is pending against him or her; or
(b)after the implementation of this Chapter, may, at any time before the expiration of the periods referred to in subsection (1), apply to the court referred to in section 50(2)(c) for an order that his or her particulars must be removed from the Register by—
(i)addressing the court on the reasons for such application and showing good cause why it is unlikely that he or she will commit another sexual offence; and
(ii)submitting to the court an affidavit by him or her stating that no charge relating to a sexual offence is pending against him or her.
[subsection (2A) inserted by section 8(b) of Act 5 of 2015]
(2B)The periods applicable in subsection (1) should be reduced by half if the person was a child at the time of the commission of the offence.
(3)
(a)A person falling into the categories contemplated in subsection (1) may apply, in the prescribed manner, to the Registrar to have his or her particulars removed from the Register.
(b)The Registrar must, after considering the application, remove the particulars of the person contemplated in paragraph (a) from the Register, unless the person concerned has a charge relating to a sexual offence pending against him or her and the relevant case has not yet been finalised, in which event the finalisation of the application must be postponed until the Registrar has, in the prescribed manner, received information on the outcome of the case.
(c)The Registrar may, at the request of a person whose particulars are included in the Register, remove those particulars from the Register, if the Registrar is satisfied that the entry of those particulars in the Register was clearly in error.
(4)Any person who has qualified for the removal of his or her particulars from the Register before the commencement of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act Amendment Act, 2021, may submit an application to the Registrar in terms of subsection (3)(a) and the Registrar must consider the application as if the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act Amendment Act, 2021, had not commenced.
[section 51 amended by section 8(a) and (b) of Act 5 of 2015 and substituted by section 24 of Act 13 of 2021]

52. Confidentiality and disclosure of information

(1)The Registrar and any other person who assists the Registrar in the exercise and performance of his or her powers, duties and functions may not disclose any information which he or she has acquired in the exercise of the powers, performance of the functions or carrying out of the duties conferred upon, assigned to or imposed upon him or her under this Chapter, except—
(a)for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Chapter; or
(b)when required to do so by any competent court.
(2)Except in so far as it may be necessary for the purposes of this Chapter, the Registrar and any other person who assists the Registrar in the exercise and performance of his or her powers, duties and functions, who willfully discloses any information to any other person, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.
(3)Any person who discloses any information which he or she has acquired in the exercise of the powers, performance of the functions or carrying out of the duties conferred upon, assigned to or imposed upon him or her under this Chapter, except—
(a)for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Chapter; or
(b)when required to do so by any competent court,
is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.
(4)Except in so far as it may be necessary for the purposes of this Chapter, any person who willfully discloses or publishes any information to any other person which he or she has acquired as a result of an application contemplated in section 44 or in any other manner, is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.

53. Regulations pertaining to Register

(1)The Minister must, after consultation with the cabinet members responsible for safety and security, correctional services, social development and health, if applicable, make regulations relating to—
(a)the manner and format in which the Register is to be established and maintained as contemplated in section 42(1);
(b)any particulars to be included in the Register, in addition to those mentioned in section 49(b)(i) to (vi);
(c)the manner in which the National Commissioner of Correctional Services must forward particulars of prisoners who are serving a sentence of imprisonment as the result of a conviction for a sexual offence to the Registrar as contemplated in section 50(5)(a);[paragraph (c) substituted by section 25 of Act 13 of 2021]
(d)the manner and period within which the National Commissioner of Correctional Services must inform each prisoner whose particulars have been forwarded to the Registrar as contemplated in section 50(5)(b);
(e)the manner in which the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service must forward particulars of persons with a previous conviction for a sexual offence to the Registrar as contemplated in section 50(6); and[paragraph (e) substituted by section 25 of Act 13 of 2021]
(f)the manner in which the Director-General: Health must forward particulars of persons who are subject to a direction in terms of section 77(6) or 78(6) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, as the result of an act which constituted a sexual offence to the Registrar as contemplated in section 50(7)(a);[paragraph (f) substituted by section 25 of Act 13 of 2021]
(g)the manner and period within which the Director-General: Health must inform each person whose particulars have been forwarded to the Registrar as contemplated in section 50(7)(b);
(h)the manner in which persons mentioned in section 44 must apply to the Registrar for a certificate;
(i)the format and content of the certificate contemplated in section 44:
(j)persons who may apply for a certificate in terms of section 44;
(k)any further category of employers to whom this Chapter shall apply;
(l)the period within which a certificate contemplated in section 44 must be provided to any person by the Registrar;
(m)access to the Register;
(n)the safe-keeping and disposal of records; and
(o)any aspect in this Chapter in respect of which regulations may be required or are necessary.
(2)The provisions of this Chapter shall apply with the necessary changes to the category of employers and employees in their employment from the date of publication of the regulations contemplated in subsection (1)(k).
(3)Regulations made in terms of subsection (1) may, in respect of any contravention thereof or failure to comply therewith, prescribe as a penalty a fine or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 12 months.
(4)Any regulation made in terms of this section must be submitted to Parliament at least 30 days before publication thereof in the Gazette.

Chapter 7
General provisions

Part 1 – Miscellaneous offences: Obligation to report commission of sexual offences against vulnerable persons and attempt, conspiracy, incitement or inducing another person to commit sexual offence

[part 1 amended by section 30 of Act 13 of 2021]

54. Obligation to report commission of sexual offences against persons who are vulnerable

(1)A person who has knowledge, reasonable belief or suspicion that a sexual offence has been committed against a person who is vulnerable as defined in section 40 must report such knowledge, reasonable belief or suspicion immediately to a police official.
(2)
(a)A person who fails to report such knowledge, reasonable belief or suspicion as contemplated in subsection (1), is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both a fine and such imprisonment.
(b)A person who in good faith reports such reasonable belief or suspicion shall not be liable to any civil or criminal proceedings by reason of making such report.
[section 54 substituted by section 26 of Act 13 of 2021]

55. Attempt, conspiracy, incitement or inducing another person to commit sexual offence

Any person who—
(a)attempts;
(b)conspires with any other person; or
(c)aids, abets, induces, incites, instigates, instructs, commands, counsels or procures another person,
to commit a sexual offence in terms of this Act, is guilty of an offence and may be liable on conviction to the punishment to which a person convicted of actually committing that offence would be liable.

Part 1A – Sexual offences courts

[Part 1A inserted by section 1 of Act 43 of 2013]

55A. Designation of sexual offences courts

(1)Subject to subsection (2), the Minister may by notice in the Gazette designate any—
(a)Division of the High Court of South Africa or the main seat or any local seat of a Division referred to in section 6 of the Superior Courts Act, 2013 (Act No. 10 of 2013); or
(b)Magistrate's Court, as defined in section 1 of the Superior Courts Act, 2013,
at which a sexual offences court must be established.[subsection (1) substituted by section 38(a) of Act 8 of 2017]
(2)The Minister must exercise the power provided for in subsection (1)—
(a)in consultation with the Chief Justice, who must consult—
(i)if a Division of the High Court of South Africa or the main seat or any local seat thereof, is to be designated, the Judge President of the Division; or
(ii)if a court for a regional division, referred to in section 2(g) of the Magistrates' Courts Act, 1944 (Act No. 32 of 1944), is to be designated, the Judge President and the magistrate at the head of a regional division; or
(iii)if a court for a district, referred to in section 2(f) of the Magistrates' Courts Act, 1944, is to be designated, the Judge President and the head of the administrative region contemplated in the Magistrates' Courts Act, 1944; and
(b)after consultation with the National Director of Public Prosecutions.
[subsection (2) substituted by section 38(a) of Act 8 of 2017]
(3)Subject to subsection (4) or any other law regulating the jurisdiction of a court, the area of jurisdiction of a court designated in terms of subsection (1), is the area of jurisdiction determined in terms of section 2 of the Magistrate’s Courts Act, 1944, in respect of a Magistrate’s Court or in terms of section 6(3) of the Superior Courts Act, 2013, in respect of a Division of the High Court or a seat thereof.
(4)The Minister may—
(a)in consultation with the persons referred to in subsection (2)(a); and
(b)after consultation with the National Director of Public Prosecutions as contemplated in subsection (2)(b),
by notice in the Gazette, increase or decrease the area of jurisdiction of any Magistrate’s Court designated in terms of subsection (1).
(5)This section does not preclude any court referred to in subsection (1)(a) or (b) from dealing with the matters referred to in that subsection if it has not been established as a sexual offences court.[subsection (5) substituted by section 38(b) of Act 8 of 2017]
(6)The facilities, measures, services and requirements as prescribed by the Minister by regulation made in terms of section 67 in respect of sexual offences cases and the courts established as sexual offences courts in terms of subsection (1), must be in place and complied with, within the periods as may be prescribed by the Minister.[subsection (6) added by section 38(c) of Act 8 of 2017]
(7)Upon establishing a court as a sexual offences court in terms of subsection (1), the following persons must ensure that sexual offences cases in that court receive priority and must, for this purpose, issue directives to the judicial officers of that court:
(a)In the case of a Division of the High Court of South Africa or the main seat or any local seat thereof, the Judge President of the Division;
(b)in the case of a court for a regional division, the magistrate at the head of a regional division referred to in subsection (2)(a)(ii); or
(c)in the case of a court for a district, the head of the administrative region referred to in subsection (2)(a)(iii).
[subsection (7) added by section 38(c) of Act 8 of 2017]
(8)The directives referred to in subsection (7) may only be issued—
(a)after consultation with the National Director of Public Prosecutions; and
(b)with the approval of the Chief Justice.
[subsection (8) added by section 38(c) of Act 8 of 2017]
(9)The Chief Justice must monitor the application of the directives issued in terms of subsection (8).[subsection (9) added by section 38(c) of Act 8 of 2017]
[section 55A inserted by section 2 of Act 43 of 2013]

Part 2 – Defences and sentencing, inability of children under 12 years and persons with mental disabilities to consent to sexual acts, other evidentiary matters and extra-territorial jurisdiction

[part 2 amended by section 30 of Act 13 of 2021]

56. Defences

[heading substituted by section 4(a) of Act 6 of 2012]
(1)Whenever an accused person is charged with an offence under section 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 it is not a valid defence for that accused person to contend that a marital or other relationship exists or existed between him or her and the complainant.
(2)Whenever an accused person is charged with an offence under—
(a)section 15 or 16, it is, subject to subsection (3), a valid defence to such a charge to contend that the child deceived the accused person into believing that he or she was 16 years or older at the time of the alleged commission of the offence and the accused person reasonably believed that the child was 16 years or older; or
(b)[paragraph (b) deleted by section 9 of Act 5 of 2015]
(3)The provisions of subsection (2)(a) do not apply if the accused person is related to the child within the prohibited incest degrees of blood, affinity or an adoptive relationship.
(4)A person ('A') may not be convicted of an offence in terms of section 12 if, at the time when the sexual act was first committed—
(a)A was below the age of 18 years; and
(b)the other person ('B') exercised power or authority over A or a relationship of trust existed between A and B.
[subsection (4) substituted by section 27 of Act 13 of 2021]
(5)A person may not be convicted of an offence in terms of section 17(4) or (5) or section 23(4) or (5) or section 54, if that person is—
(a)a child; and
(b)not a person contemplated in section 17(1) and (2) or 23(1) and (2), as the case may be.
(6)It is not a valid defense to a charge under section 20(1), in respect of a visual representation that—
(a)the accused person believed that a person shown in the representation that is alleged to constitute child pornography, was or was depicted as being 18 years or older unless the accused took all reasonable steps to ascertain the age of that person; and
(b)took all reasonable steps to ensure that, where the person was 18 years or older, the representation did not depict that person as being under the age of 18 years.
(7)[subsection (7) deleted by section 4(b) of Act 6 of 2012]
(8)A person may not be convicted of an offence in terms of section 9 or 22 if that person commits such act in compliance with and in the interest of a legitimate cultural practice.

56A. Sentencing

(1)A court shall, if—
(a)that or another court has convicted a person of an offence in terms of this Act; and
(b)a penalty is not prescribed in respect of that offence in terms of this Act or by any other Act,
impose a sentence, as provided for in section 276 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977), which that court considers appropriate and which is within that court's penal jurisdiction.
(2)If a person is convicted of any offence under this Act, the court that imposes the sentence shall consider as an aggravating factor the fact that the person—
(a)committed the offence with the intent to gain financially, or receive any favour, benefit, reward, compensation or any other advantage; or
(b)gained financially, or received any favour, benefit, reward, compensation or any other advantage,
from the commission of such offence.
(3)
(a)Any person who contravenes the provisions of section 11A(1) or (2), is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
(b)Any person who contravenes the provisions of section 11A(3), is liable on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
[Please note: paragraphs (c) - (e) have been added by section 58 of of the Cyberbrimes Act 19 of 2020, these provisions have not yet commenced.][subsection (3) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
(4)Any person who contravenes the provisions of section 19A(3), (4)(f), (g), (h), (i) or (j), or (5)(f), (g), (h), (i) or (j) is liable—
(a)in the case of a first conviction, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both such fine and imprisonment;
(b)in the case of a second conviction, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years or to both such fine and imprisonment; or
(c)in the case of a third and subsequent conviction, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 15 years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
[subsection (4) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
(5)Any person who contravenes the provisions of section 17(7), 19A(1), (2), (4)(a), (b), (c), (d), or (e), (5)(a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) or 20(3) or (4), is liable—
(a)in the case of a first conviction, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years or to both such fine and imprisonment; or
(b)in the case of a second and subsequent conviction, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 15 years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
[subsection (5) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
(6)Any person who contravenes the provisions of section 19A(6), is liable—
(a)in the case of a first conviction, to a fine of R1 000 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 5 years, or to both such fine and imprisonment; or
(b)in the case of a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine of R2 000 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
[subsection (6) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
(7)Any person who contravenes the provisions of section 54(3), is liable, on conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 5 years or to both such fine and imprisonment.[subsection (7) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
(8)Any electronic communications service provider who contravenes the provisions of section 54(4), is liable, on conviction to a fine not exceeding R1 000 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 5 years or to both such fine and imprisonment.[subsection (8) added by section 58 of Act 19 of 2020]
[section 56A inserted by section 5 of Act 6 of 2012]

57. Inability of children under 12 years and persons with mental disabilities to consent to sexual acts

[heading amended by section 28(a) of Act 13 of 2021]
(1)Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any law contained, a male or female person under the age of 12 years is incapable of consenting to a sexual act.
(2)Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any law contained, a person with a mental disability is incapable of consenting to a sexual act.[subsection (2) substituted by section 28(b) of Act 13 of 2021]

58. Evidence of previous consistent statements

Evidence relating to previous consistent statements by a complainant shall be admissible in criminal proceedings involving the alleged commission of a sexual offence: Provided that the court may not draw any inference only from the absence of such previous consistent statements.

59. Evidence of delay in reporting

In criminal proceedings involving the alleged commission of a sexual offence, the court may not draw any inference only from the length of any delay between the alleged commission of such offence and the reporting thereof.

60. Court may not treat evidence of complainant with caution on account of nature of offence

Notwithstanding any other law, a court may not treat the evidence of a complainant in criminal proceedings involving the alleged commission of a sexual offence pending before that court, with caution, on account of the nature of the offence.

61. Extra-territorial jurisdiction

(1)Even if the act alleged to constitute a sexual offence or other offence under this Act occurred outside the Republic, a court of the Republic, whether or not the act constitutes an offence at the place of its commission, has, subject to subsections (4) and (5), jurisdiction in respect of that offence if the person to be charged—
(a)is a citizen of the Republic;
(b)is ordinarily resident in the Republic;
(c)was arrested in the territory of the Republic, or in its territorial waters or on board a ship or aircraft registered or required to be registered in the Republic at the time the offence was committed;
(d)is a company, incorporated or registered as such under any law, in the Republic; or
(e)any body of persons, corporate or unincorporated, in the Republic.
(2)Subject to subsections (4) and (5), any act alleged to constitute a sexual offence or other offence under this Act and which is committed outside the Republic by a person, other than a person contemplated in subsection (1), is, whether or not the act constitutes an offence at the place of its commission, deemed to have been committed in the Republic if that—
(a)act was committed against a person referred to in paragraphs (a) or (b) of subsection (1);
(b)person is found in the Republic; and
(c)person is, for any reason, not extradited by the Republic or if there is no application to extradite that person.
(3)Any offence committed in a country outside the Republic as contemplated in subsection (1) or (2), is, for purposes of determining the jurisdiction of a court to try the offence, deemed to have been committed—
(a)at the place where the complainant is ordinarily resident; or
(b)at the accused person’s principal place of business.
(4)No prosecution may be instituted against a person in terms of this section with respect to conduct which formed the basis of an offence under this Act in respect of which such person has already been convicted or acquitted by a court of another jurisdiction.
(5)The institution of a prosecution in terms of this section must be authorised in writing by the National Director of Public Prosecutions.

Part 3 – National policy framework

62. National policy framework

(1)The Minister must, after consultation with the cabinet members responsible for safety and security, correctional services, social development and health and the National Director of Public Prosecutions, adopt a national policy framework, relating to all matters dealt with in this Act, to—
(a)ensure a uniform and co-ordinated approach by all Government departments and institutions in dealing with matters relating to sexual offences;
(b)guide the implementation, enforcement and administration of this Act; and
(c)enhance the delivery of service as envisaged in this Act by the development of a plan for the progressive realisation of services for victims of sexual offences within available resources.
(2)The Minister must—
(a)before 31 March 2009, adopt and table the policy framework in Parliament;
(b)publish the policy framework in the Gazette within one month after it has been tabled in Parliament;
(c)review the policy framework within five years after its publication in the Gazette and at least once every five years thereafter; and
(d)amend the policy framework when required, in which case the amendments must be tabled in Parliament and published in the Gazette, as provided for in paragraph (b).
[subsection (2) substituted by section 38 of Act 66 of 2008]

63. Establishment of Inter-sectoral Committee

(1)There is hereby established a Committee to be known as the Inter-sectoral Committee for the Management of Sexual Offence Matters.
(2)The Committee shall consist of—
(a)the Director-General: Justice and Constitutional Development, who shall be the chairperson of the Committee;
(b)the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service;
(c)the National Commissioner of Correctional Services;
(d)the Director-General: Social Development;
(e)the Director-General: Health; and
(f)the National Director of Public Prosecutions.
(3)The members of the Committee may designate an alternate to attend a meeting of the Committee in their place.
(4)
(a)The members of the Committee shall designate one of its members as deputy chairperson of the Committee, and when the chairperson is not available, the deputy chairperson shall act as chairperson.
(b)If neither the chairperson nor deputy chairperson is available, the members present at a meeting shall elect a person from their own ranks to preside at that meeting.

64. Meetings of Committee

(1)The Committee shall meet at least twice every year and meetings shall be held at a time and place determined by the chairperson.
(2)The procedure, including the manner in which decisions shall be taken, to be followed at meetings of the Committee and the manner in which the Committee shall conduct its affairs shall be determined by the Committee.
(3)The Committee shall report in writing on every meeting to the Minister within one month of such meeting.

65. Responsibilities, functions and duties of Committee

(1)The Committee shall be responsible for developing and compiling a draft national policy framework, as contemplated in section 62(1), which must include guidelines for—
(a)the implementation of the priorities and strategies contained in the national policy framework;
(b)measuring progress on the achievement of the national policy framework objectives;
(c)ensuring that the different organs of state comply with the primary and supporting roles and responsibilities allocated to them in terms of the national policy framework and this Act; and
(d)monitoring the implementation of the national policy framework and of this Act.
(2)The Committee may make recommendations to the Minister with regard to the amendment of the national policy framework.
(3)The Minister must, after consultation with the cabinet members responsible for safety and security, correctional services, social development and health and the National Director of Public Prosecutions
(a)within one year after the implementation of this Act, submit reports to Parliament, by each Department or institution contemplated in section 63(2), on the implementation of this Act; and
(b)every year thereafter submit such reports to Parliament.

Part 4 – National instructions and directives, regulations and repeal and amendment of laws

66. National instructions and directives

(1)
(a)The National Commissioner of the South African Police Service must, in consultation with the Minister of Police and after consultation with the Minister, the National Director of Public Prosecutions, the National Commissioner of Correctional Services and the Directors-General: Health and Social Development, issue and publish in the Gazette national instructions regarding all matters which are reasonably necessary or expedient to be provided for and which must be followed by all police officials who are tasked with receiving reports of and the investigation of sexual offence cases, in order to achieve the objects of this Act as set out in section 2 and the Preamble, particularly those objects which have a bearing on complainants of such offences, including the following:
(i)The manner in which the reporting of an alleged sexual offence is to be dealt with by police officials;
(ii)the manner in which sexual offence cases are to be investigated by police officials, including the circumstances in which an investigation in respect of a sexual offence may be discontinued;
(iii)the circumstances in which and the relevant sexual offence or offence in respect of which a police official may apply for the HIV testing of an alleged offender as contemplated in section 33;
(iv)the manner in which police officials must execute court orders for compulsory HIV testing contemplated in section 33 in order to ensure the security, integrity and reliability of the testing processes and test results;
(v)the manner in which police officials must deal with the outcome of applications made and granted in terms of section 31 or 32 in order to ensure confidentiality;
(vi)the manner in which police officials must hand over to the victim or to the interested person, as the case may be, and to the alleged offender the test results; and
(vii)the manner in which police officials must carry out their responsibilities and duties in relation to sexual offences courts designated in terms of section 55A and any regulations made in terms of section 67(b).
[paragraph (a) substituted by section 3(a) of Act 43 of 2013]
(b)The National Commissioner of the South African Police Service must develop training courses, which must—
(i)include training on the national instructions referred to in paragraph (a):
(ii)include social context training in respect of sexual offences: and
(iii)provide for and promote the use of uniform norms, standards and procedures,
with a view to ensuring that as many police officials as possible are able to deal with sexual offence cases in an appropriate, efficient and sensitive manner.
(c)The National Commissioner of the South African Police Service must, in consultation with the National Director of Public Prosecutions, issue and publish in the Gazette national instructions regarding the manner in which police officials must—
(i)retain test results obtained;
(ii)make the record of the test results available to a prosecutor; and
(iii)destroy the test results as contemplated in section 33(2)(b),
as contemplated in section 33(1)(e), in order to ensure the confidentiality of such test results.
(2)
(a)The National Director of Public Prosecutions must, in consultation with the Minister and after consultation with the National Commissioners of the South African Police Service and Correctional Services and the Directors-General: Health and Social Development, issue and publish in the Gazette directives regarding all matters which are reasonably necessary or expedient to be provided for and which are to be followed by all members of the prosecuting authority who are tasked with the institution and conducting of prosecutions in sexual offence cases, in order to achieve the objects of this Act as set out in section 2 and the Preamble, particularly those objects which have a bearing on complainants of such offences, including the following:
(i)The manner in which sexual offence cases should be dealt with in general, including the circumstances in which a charge may be withdrawn or a prosecution stopped;
(ii)the criteria to be used and circumstances in which the prosecution must apply to court for an order that witnesses and, in particular, child complainants below the age of 16 years give evidence by means of closed circuit television as provided for in section 158 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, if the court does not make an order on its own initiative in terms of subsection (2)(a) of that section or an application in terms of subsection (2)(b) of that section is not made;
(iii)the criteria to be used and circumstances in which the prosecution must request the court to consider appointing a competent person as an intermediary as provided for in section 170A of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, in respect of witnesses and, in particular, child complainants below the age of 16 years;
(iv)the circumstances in which the prosecution must request the court to consider directing that the proceedings may not take place in open court as provided for in section 153 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977;
(v)the circumstances in which the prosecution must request the court to consider prohibiting the publication of the identity of the complainant in the case as provided for in section 154 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, or of the complainant’s family, including the publication of information that may lead to the identification of the complainant or the complainant’s family;
(vi)the criteria to be used, circumstances and manner in which Directors of Public Prosecutions should authorise and institute a prosecution contemplated in section 16(2), dealing with consensual sexual violation with a child with the view to ensuring uniformity;
(vii)the criteria to be used, circumstances and manner in which Directors of Public Prosecutions should authorise and institute a prosecution contemplated in section 38(1), dealing with the ascertainment of the HIV status of an alleged offender or disclosure of the results of any HIV tests, with the view to ensuring uniformity;
(viii)the information to be placed before a court during sentencing, including pre-sentence reports and information on the impact of the sexual offence on the complainant;
(ix)the manner in which prosecutors must ensure that an order contemplated in section 50(2)(a) (dealing with an order of a court to include the accused’s name in the Register) is forwarded to and received by the Registrar of the National Register for Sex Offenders; and
(x)the manner in which prosecutors must carry out their responsibilities and duties in relation to sexual offences courts designated in terms of section 55A and any regulations made in terms of section 67(b).
[paragraph (a) substituted by section 3(b) of Act 43 of 2013]
(b)The National Director of Public Prosecutions must develop training courses, which must—
(i)include training on the directives referred to in paragraph (a);
(ii)include social context training in respect of sexual offences; and
(iii)provide for and promote the use of uniform norms, standards and procedures,
with a view to ensuring that as many prosecutors as possible are able to deal with sexual offence cases in an appropriate, efficient and sensitive manner.
(c)The National Director of Public Prosecutions must, in consultation with the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service, issue and publish in the Gazette directives regarding the manner in which prosecutors and other officials in the national prosecuting authority must deal with the HIV test results that were disclosed by police officials, as contemplated in section 33(1)(e)(ii), in order to ensure the confidentiality of such test results.
(3)
(a)The Director-General: Health must, in consultation with the Minister of Health and after consultation with the Directors-General: Justice and Constitutional Development and Social Development and the National Commissioners of the South African Police Service and Correctional Services, publish in the Gazette directives regarding all matters which are reasonably necessary or expedient to be provided for and which are to be followed by all medical practitioners and any other relevant persons when dealing with sexual offence cases, in order to achieve the objects of this Act as set out in section 2 and the Preamble, particularly those objects which have a bearing on complainants of such offences, with particular reference, among others, to—
(i)the administering of Post Exposure Prophylaxis;
(ii)the manner in which court orders for compulsory HIV testing contemplated in section 33 must be executed in order to ensure the security, integrity and reliability of the testing processes and test results;
(iii)the manner in which the HIV test results contemplated in section 37 must be dealt with in order to ensure confidentiality;
(iv)the manner in which the reporting of an alleged sexual offence is to be dealt with if the offence is reported to a designated public health establishment;
(v)the manner in which assistance in the investigation and prosecution of sexual offences, generally, must be provided; and
(vi)the manner in which medical practitioners and any other relevant persons must carry out their responsibilities and duties in relation to sexual offences courts designated in terms of section 55A and any regulations made in terms of section 67(b).
[paragraph (a) substituted by section 3(c) of Act 43 of 2013]
(b)The Director-General: Health must develop training courses, which must—
(i)include training on the directives referred to in paragraph (a);
(ii)include social context training in respect of sexual offences; and
(iii)provide for and promote the use of uniform norms, standards and procedures,
with a view to ensuring that as many medical practitioners and any other relevant persons as possible are able to deal with sexual offence cases in an appropriate, efficient and sensitive manner.
(3A)The Director-General: Social Development must, in consultation with the Minister of Social Development, and after consultation with the Directors-General: Justice and Constitutional Development and Health, the National Director of Public Prosecutions and the National Commissioners of the South African Police Service and Correctional Services, issue and publish in the Gazette directives regarding all matters which are reasonably necessary or expedient to be provided for and which are to be followed by all relevant persons who exercise any power or perform any duty in terms of this Act relating to social services, when dealing with sexual offence cases, in order to achieve the objects of this Act as set out in section 2 and the Preamble, particularly those objects which have a bearing on complainants of such offences, with particular reference to the responsibilities and duties of these persons in relation to sexual offences courts designated in terms of section 55A and any regulations made in terms of section 67(b).[subsection (3A) inserted by section 3(d) of Act 43 of 2013]
(4)
(a)The national instructions and directives by each Department or institution, contemplated in this section must be—
(i)submitted to Parliament within six months after the commencement of this section, before publication in the Gazette: Provided that the first national instructions or directives giving effect to section 3 of the Judicial Matters Second Amendment Act, 2013, must be submitted to Parliament within six months after any regulations have been made in terms of section 67(b); and
(ii)published in the Gazette.
[paragraph (a) substituted by section 3(e) of Act 43 of 2013]
(b)Paragraph (a) applies to any new or amended national instructions or directives issued under this section with the changes required by the context.
(5)
(a)The training courses contemplated in this section must be tabled in Parliament within six months after the commencement of this Act.
(b)[paragraph (b) deleted by section 15 of Act 24 of 2015]
(c)Any new or amended training courses developed under this section must be tabled in Parliament within 14 days of the finalisation thereof.

67. Regulations

(1)The Minister, after consultation with the cabinet members responsible for safety and security, correctional services, social development and health and the National Director of Public Prosecutions, may make regulations regarding—
(a)any matter which is required or permitted by this Act to be prescribed by regulation;
(b)the inter-sectoral implementation of this Act; and
(c)any other matter which is necessary or expedient to be prescribed in order to achieve or promote the objects of this Act.
(2)The Minister may make regulations regarding the procedure to be followed in respect of the applications referred to in section 51(2A) of this Act.[section 67 substituted by section 10 of Act 5 of 2015]

68. Repeal and amendment of laws

(1)The common law relating to the—
(a)irrebuttable presumption that a female person under the age of 12 years is incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse; and
(b)crimes of rape, indecent assault, incest, bestiality and violation of a corpse, insofar as it relates to the commission of a sexual act with a corpse,
is hereby repealed.
(2)The laws specified in the Schedule are repealed or amended to the extent indicated in the third column of that Schedule.

Part 5 – Transitional provisions

69. Transitional provisions

(1)All criminal proceedings relating to the common law crimes referred to in section 68(1)(b) which were instituted prior to the commencement of this Act and which are not concluded before the commencement of this Act must be continued and concluded in all respects as if this Act had not been passed.
(2)An investigation or prosecution or other legal proceedings in respect of conduct which would have constituted one of the common law crimes referred to in section 68(1)(b) which was initiated before the commencement of this Act may be concluded, instituted and continued as if this Act had not been passed.
(3)Despite the repeal or amendment of any provision of any law by this Act, such provision, for purposes of the disposal of any investigation, prosecution or any criminal or legal proceedings contemplated in subsection (1) or (2), remains in force as if such provision had not been repealed or amended.

69A. Removal of particulars from Register and expungement of certain criminal records under the Sexual Offences Act, 1957, and this Act

(1)
(a)Where a court has convicted a person of any of the offences referred to in paragraph (b), the—
(i)particulars of that person in respect of that offence must be removed automatically from the Register by the Registrar; and
(ii)criminal record, containing the conviction and sentence in question, of that person in respect of that offence must be expunged automatically by the Criminal Record Centre of the South African Police Service, as provided for in subsection (2).
(b)The offences contemplated in paragraph (a) are the following:
(i)A contravention of section 14(1)(a) or 14(3)(a) of the Sexual Offences Act, 1957 (Act No. 23 of 1957), if the convicted person was 16 years or younger at the time of the commission of the offence;
(ii)a contravention of section 14(1)(b), 14(1)(c), 14(3)(b) or 14(3)(c) of the Sexual Offences Act, 1957, if the convicted person was 19 years or younger at the time of the commission of the offence; and
(iii)a contravention of section 15 or 16 of this Act if the convicted person was 12 years or older, but under the age of 16 years at the time of the commission of the offence.
(2)
(a)The—
(i)Registrar must remove the particulars from the Register; and
(ii)head of the Criminal Record Centre of the South African Police Service or a senior person or persons at the rank of Director or above, employed at the Centre, who has or have been authorised, in writing, by the head of the Centre to do so, must expunge the criminal record of a person,
if that person qualifies for the automatic removal of his or her particulars from the Register, and the automatic expungement of his or her criminal record, as provided for in subsection (1).
(b)The—
(i)Registrar must, on the written request of a person who qualifies to have his or her particulars removed automatically in terms of subsection (1), in writing, confirm that the particulars in question have been removed; and
(ii)head of the Criminal Record Centre of the South African Police Service must, on the written request of a person who qualifies to have his or her criminal record expunged automatically in terms of subsection (1), in writing, confirm that the criminal record in question has been expunged.
[section 69A inserted by section 11 of Act 5 of 2015]

Part 6 – ***

[heading of Part 6 deleted by section 48 of Act 7 of 2013]

70. ***

[section 70 repealed by section 48 of Act 7 of 2013]

71. ***

[section 71 repealed by section 48 of Act 7 of 2013]

72. Short title and commencement

(1)This Act is called the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, and, subject to subsection (2), takes effect on 16 December 2007, or an earlier date fixed by the President by proclamation in the Gazette.
(2)
(a)Chapter 5 of the Act takes effect on 21 March 2008, or an earlier date fixed by the President by proclamation in the Gazette.
(b)Chapter 6 of the Act takes effect on 16 June 2008, or an earlier date fixed by the President by proclamation in the Gazette.

Schedule

Laws amended or repealed by Section 68

No. and year of lawShort titleExtent of repeal or amendment
Act 32 of 1944Magistrates’ Courts Act1. The amendment of section 89 by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) The court, other than the court of a regional division, shall have jurisdiction over all offences, except treason, murder, [and] rape and compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 and 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.".2. The substitution for Schedule 2 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 2Offences in respect of which judicial officers must be assisted by two assessors in terms of section 93ter(2):1. Murder.2. Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.3. Robbery, where serious bodily harm has been inflicted on the victim.4. Assault, where serious bodily harm has been inflicted on the victim.[5. Indecent assault.]".
Act 23 of 1957Sexual Offences Act1. The amendment of section 1 by the insertion after the definition of "court" of the following definition:'"female" means a female person 18 years or older;’.2. The substitution of subsection (1) of section 12A for the following subsection:"(1) Any person who, with intent or while he reasonably ought to have foreseen the possibility that any person, who is 18 years or older, may have unlawful carnal intercourse, or commit an act of indecency, with any other person for reward, performs for reward any act which is calculated to enable such other person to communicate with any such person, who is 18 years or older, shall be guilty of an offence.".3. The amendment of section 19 by the substitution for the following section:"19. (1) Any person who[—(a)] entices, solicits, or importunes in any public place for immoral purposes[; or(b) wilfully and openly exhibits himself or herself in an indecent dress or manner at any door or window or within view of any public street or place or in any place to which the public have access],shall be guilty of an offence.(2) Any person 18 years or older who wilfully and openly exhibits himself or herself in an indecent dress or manner at any door or window or within view of any public street or place or in any place to which the public have access, shall be guilty of an offence.".4. The amendment of section 20 by the—(a) substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) Any person who—(a) knowingly lives wholly or in part on the earnings of prostitution; or[(aA) has unlawful carnal intercourse, or commits an act of indecency, with any other person for reward; or(b) in public commits any act of indecency with another person; or](c) in public or in private in any way assists in bringing about, or receives any consideration for, the commission by any person of any act of indecency with another person,shall be guilty of an offence."; and(b) insertion after subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1A) Any person 18 years or older who—(a) has unlawful carnal intercourse, or commits an act of indecency, with any other person for reward; or(b) in public commits any act of indecency with another person,shall be guilty of an offence.".5. The substitution for section 22 of the following section:"22. Penalties Any person who is convicted of an offence under the provisions of this Act for which no special penalty is prescribed, shall be liable—(a) in the case of an offence referred to in section 2 or 20(1)(a) or [(aA)] (1A)(a), to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years with or without a fine not exceeding R6 000 in addition to such imprisonment;[(b) in the case of an offence referred to in section 9(1), to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years, or, if the child concerned is a boy under the age of 14 years or a girl under the age of 12 years, for life;](c) .....(d) in the case of an offence referred to in section [11,] 12A [or 18], with a fine, or imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years;(e) in the case of an offence referred to in section 10 or 12(1) [or 13(1)], to imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven years;(f) in the case of an offence referred to in section [14(1), 14(3), 15 or] 17, to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six years with or without a fine not exceeding R12 000 in addition to such imprisonment;(g) in the case of an offence referred to in section [18A, 19, 20(1)(b) or (c), or 20A(1),] 19 or 20(1)(c) or (1A)(b) to a fine not exceeding R4 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.".7. The repeal of sections 9, 11, 12(2) 13, 14, 15, 18, 18A and 20A.
Act 8 of 1959Correctional Services Act1. The substitution for Schedule 2 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 2(Section 29 (5))MurderRape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectivelyRobbery where the wielding of a fire-arm or any other dangerous weapon or the infliction of grievous bodily harm or the robbery of a motor vehicle is involvedAssault with intent to commit grievous bodily harm, or when a dangerous wound is inflicted[Assault of a sexual nature] Sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively KidnappingAny offence under any law relating to the illicit conveyance or supply of dependence producing drugsAny conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence referred to in this Schedule.".
Act 68 of 1969Prescription Act1. The amendment of section 12—(a) by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) Subject to the provisions of subsections (2), [and] (3), and (4), prescription shall commence to run as soon as the debt is due."; and(b) by the addition after subsection (3) of the following subsection:"(4) Prescription shall not commence to run in respect of a debt based on the commission of an alleged sexual offence as contemplated in sections 3, 4, 17, 18(2), 20(1), 23, 24(2), 26(1) and 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, during the time in which the creditor is unable to institute proceedings because of his or her mental or psychological condition."
Act 51 of 1977Criminal Procedure Act1. The substitution for section 18 of the following section:"Prescription of right to institute prosecution 18. The right to institute a prosecution for any offence, other than the offences of—(a) murder;(b) treason committed when the Republic is in a state of war;(c) robbery, if aggravating circumstances were present;(d) kidnapping;(e) child-stealing; [or](f) rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively;(g) the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, as contemplated in section 4 of the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act, 2002, or(h) trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person as contemplated in section 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007; or(i) using a child or person who is mentally disabled for pornographic purposes as contemplated in sections 20(1) and 26(1) of No. and year of law the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007,shall, unless some other period is expressly provided for by law, lapse after the expiration of a period of 20 years from the time when the offence was committed,".2. The amendment of section 77 by the substitution for subsection (6) of the following subsection;"(6)(a) If the court which has jurisdiction in terms of section 75 to try the case, finds that the accused is not capable of understanding the proceedings so as to make a proper defence, the court may, if it is of the opinion that it is in the interests of the accused, taking into account the nature of the accused's incapacity contemplated in subsection (1), and unless it can be proved on a balance of probabilities that, on the limited evidence available the accused committed the act in question, order that such information or evidence be placed before the court as it deems fit so as to determine whether the accused has committed the act in question and the court shall direct that the accused—(i) in the case of a charge of murder or culpable homicide or rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or a charge involving serious violence or if the court considers it to be necessary in the public interest, where the court finds that the accused has committed the act in question, or any other offence involving serious violence, be detained in a psychiatric hospital or a prison pending the decision of a judge in chambers in terms of section 47 of the Mental Health Care Act, 2002; or(ii) where the court finds that the accused has committed an offence other than one contemplated in subparagraph (i) or that he or she has not committed any offence—(aa) be admitted to and detained in an institution stated in the order as if he or she were an involuntary mental health care user contemplated in section 37 of the Mental Health Care Act, 2002,and if the court so directs after the accused has pleaded to the charge, the accused shall not be entitled under section 106(4) to be acquitted or to be convicted in respect of the charge in question.(b) If the court makes a finding in terms of paragraph (a) after the accused has been convicted of the offence charged but before sentence is passed, the court shall set the conviction aside, and if the accused has pleaded guilty it shall be deemed that he has pleaded not guilty.".3. The amendment of section 78 by the substitution for subsection (6) of the following subsection:"(6) If the court finds that the accused committed the act in question and that he or she at the time of such commission was by reason of mental illness or intellectual disability not criminally responsible for such act—(a) the court shall find the accused not guilty; or(b) if the court so finds after the accused has been convicted of the offence charged but before sentence is passed, the court shall set the conviction aside and find the accused not guilty,by reason of mental illness or intellectual disability, as the case may be, and direct—(i) in a case where the accused is charged with murder or culpable homicide or rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or another charge involving serious violence, or if the court considers it to be necessary in the public interest that the accused be—(aa) detained in a psychiatric hospital or a prison pending the decision of a judge in chambers in terms of section 47 of the Mental Health Care Act, 2002;(bb) admitted to and detained in an institution stated in the order and treated as if he or she were an involuntary mental care health user contemplated in section 37 of the Mental Health Care Act, 2002;(cc).....(dd) released subject to such conditions as the court considers appropriate; or(ee) released unconditionally;(ii) in any other case than a case contemplated in subparagraph (i), that the accused—(aa) be admitted to and detained in an institution stated in the order and treated as if he or she were an involuntary mental health care user contemplated in section 37 of the Mental Health Care Act, 2002;(bb)....(cc) be released subject to such conditions as the court considers appropriate; or(dd) be released unconditionally.".4. The amendment of section 79 by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) Where a court issues a direction under section 77(1) or 78(2), the relevant enquiry shall be conducted and be reported on—(a) where the accused is charged with an offence other than one referred to in paragraph (b), by the medical superintendent of a psychiatric hospital designated by the court, or by a psychiatrist appointed by such medical superintendent at the request of the court; or(b) where the accused is charged with murder or culpable homicide or rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or another charge involving serious violence, or if the court considers it to be necessary in the public interest, or where the court in any particular case so directs—(i) by the medical superintendent of a psychiatric hospital designated by the court, or by a psychiatrist appointed by such medical superintendent at the request of the court;(ii) by a psychiatrist appointed by the court and who is not in the full-time service of the State;(iii) by a psychiatrist appointed for the accused by the court; and(iv) by a clinical psychologist where the court so directs.".5. The amendment of section 153 by the substitution for subsection (3) of the following subsection:"(3) In criminal proceedings relating to a charge that the accused committed or attempted to commit—(a) any [indecent act] sexual offence as contemplated in section 1 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, towards or in connection with any other person;(b) any act for the purpose of [procuring or] furthering the commission of [an indecent act] a sexual offence as contemplated in section 1 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, towards or in connection with any other person; or(c) extortion or any statutory offence of demanding from any other person some advantage which was not due and, by inspiring fear in the mind of such other person, compelling him to render such advantage,the court before which such proceedings are pending may, at the request of such other person or, if he is a minor, at the request of his parent or guardian, direct that any person whose presence is not necessary at the proceedings or any person or class of persons mentioned in the request, shall not be present at the proceedings: Provided that judgment shall be delivered and sentence shall be passed in open court if the court is of the opinion that the identity of the other person concerned would not be revealed thereby.".6. The amendment of section 154—(a) by the substitution for subsection (5) of the following subsection:"(5) Any person who publishes any information in contravention of this section or contrary to any direction or authority under this section or who in any manner whatever reveals the identity of a witness in contravention of a direction under section 153(2), shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine [not exceeding RI 500] or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding [one year] three years or to both such fine and such imprisonment if the person in respect of whom the publication or revelation of identity was done, is over the age of 18 years, and if such person is under the age of 18 years, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both such fine and such imprisonment."; and(b) by the addition of the following subsection:"(6) The provisions of section 300 are applicable, with the changes required by the context, upon the conviction of a person in terms of subsection (5) and if—(a) the criminal proceedings that gave rise to the publication of information or the revelation of identity as contemplated in that subsection related to a charge that an accused person committed or attempted to commit any sexual act as contemplated in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, towards or in connection with any other person or any act for the purpose of procuring or furthering the commission of a sexual act, as contemplated in that Act, towards or in connection with any other person; and(b) the other person referred to in paragraph (a) suffered any physical, psychological or other injury or loss of income or support."7. The amendment of section 158 by the addition after subsection (4) of the following subsection:"(5) The court shall provide reasons for refusing any application by the public prosecutor for the giving of evidence by a child complainant below the age of 14 years by means of closed circuit television or similar electronic media, immediately upon refusal and such reasons shall be entered into the record of the proceedings."8. The amendment of section 164 by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) Any person, who [from ignorance arising from youth, defective education or other cause,] is found not to understand the nature and import of the oath or the affirmation, may be admitted to give evidence in criminal proceedings without taking the oath or making the affirmation: Provided that such person shall, in lieu of the oath or affirmation, be admonished by the presiding judge or judicial officer to speak the truth[, the whole truth and nothing but the truth]."9. The amendment of section 170A by—(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) Whenever criminal proceedings are pending before any court and it appears to such court that it would expose any witness under the biological or mental age of eighteen years to undue mental stress or suffering if he or she testifies at such proceedings, the court may, subject to subsection (4), appoint a competent person as an intermediary in order to enable such witness to give his or her evidence through that intermediary."; and(b) the addition after subsection (6) of the following subsections:"(7) The court shall provide reasons for refusing any application or request by the public prosecutor for the appointment of an intermediary in respect of child complainants below the age of 14 years, immediately upon refusal and such reasons shall be entered into the record of the proceedings.";"(8) An intermediary referred to in subsection (1) shall be summoned to appear in court on a specified date and at a specified place and time to act as an intermediary."; and"(9) If, at the commencement of or at any stage before the completion of the proceedings concerned, an intermediary appointed by the court—(a) is for any reason absent;(b) becomes unable to act as an intermediary in the opinion of the court; or(c) dies,the court may, in the interests of justice and after due consideration of the arguments put forward by the accused person and the prosecutor—(i) postpone the proceedings in order to obtain the intermediary’s presence;(ii) summons the intermediary to appear before the court to advance reasons for being absent;(iii) direct that the appointment of the intermediary be revoked and appoint another intermediary; or(iv) direct that the appointment of the intermediary be revoked and that the proceedings continue in the absence of an intermediary.(10) The court shall immediately give reasons for any direction or order referred to in subsection (9)(iv), which reasons shall be entered into the record of the proceedings.".10. The amendment of section 195 by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) The wife or husband of an accused shall be competent, but not compellable, to give evidence for the prosecution in criminal proceedings, but shall be competent and compellable to give evidence for the prosecution at such proceedings where the accused is charged with—(a) any offence committed against the person of either of them or of a child of either of them or of a child that is in the care of either of them:(b) any offence under Chapter 8 of the Child Care Act, 1983 (Act No. 74 of 1983), committed in respect of any child of either of them;(c) any contravention of any provision of section 31(1) of the Maintenance Act, 1998, or of such provision as applied by any other law;(d) bigamy;(e) incest as contemplated in section 12 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(f) abduction;(g) any contravention of any provision of section 2, 8, [9,] 10, [11,] 12, 12A, [13,] 17 or 20 of the Sexual Offences Act, 1957 (Act No. 23 of 1957);(gA) any contravention of any provision of section 17 or 23 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(h) perjury committed in connection with or for the purpose of any judicial proceedings instituted or to be instituted or contemplated by the one of them against the other, or in connection with or for the purpose of criminal proceedings in respect of any offence included in this subsection;(i) the statutory offence of making a false statement in any affidavit or any affirmed, solemn or attested declaration if it is made in connection with or for the purpose of any such proceedings as are mentioned in paragraph (h).11. The substitution for section 227 of the following section:"Evidence of character and previous sexual experience227. (1) Evidence as to the character of an accused or as to the character of any person against or in connection with whom a sexual offence as contemplated in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, is alleged to have been committed, shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (2), be admissible or inadmissible if such evidence would have been admissible or inadmissible on the 30th day of May, 1961.(2) No evidence as to any previous sexual experience or conduct of any person against or in connection with whom a sexual offence is alleged to have been committed, other than evidence relating to sexual experience or conduct in respect of the offence which is being tried, shall be adduced, and no evidence or question in cross examination regarding such sexual experience or conduct, shall be put to such person, the accused or any other witness at the proceedings pending before the court unless—(a) the court has, on application by any party to the proceedings, granted leave to adduce such evidence or to put such question; or(b) such evidence has been introduced by the prosecution.(3) Before an application for leave contemplated in subsection (2)(a) is heard, the court may direct that any person, including the complainant, whose presence is not necessary may not be present at the proceedings.(4) The court shall, subject to subsection (6), grant the application referred to in subsection (2)(a) only if satisfied that such evidence or questioning is relevant to the proceedings pending before the court.(5) In determining whether evidence or questioning as contemplated in this section is relevant to the proceedings pending before the court, the court shall take into account whether such evidence or questioning—(a) is in the interests of justice, with due regard to the accused’s right to a fair trial;(b) is in the interests of society in encouraging the reporting of sexual offences;(c) relates to a specific instance of sexual activity relevant to a fact in issue;(d) is likely to rebut evidence previously adduced by the prosecution;(e) is fundamental to the accused’s defence;(f) is not substantially outweighed by its potential prejudice to the complainant’s personal dignity and right to privacy; or(g) is likely to explain the presence of semen or the source of pregnancy or disease or any injury to the complainant, where it is relevant to a fact in issue;(6) The court shall not grant an application referred to in subsection (2)(a) if, in its opinion, such evidence or questioning is sought to be adduced to support an inference that by reason of the sexual nature of the complainant’s experience or conduct, the complainant—(a) is more likely to have consented to the offence being tried; or(b) is less worthy of belief.(7) The court shall provide reasons for granting or refusing an application in terms of subsection (2)(a), which reasons shall be entered in the record of the proceedings.".12. The amendment of section 238 by—(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) At criminal proceedings at which an accused is charged with incest as contemplated in section 12 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007—(a) it shall be sufficient to prove that the [woman or girl on] person against whom or by whom the offence is alleged to have been committed, is reputed to be the lineal ascendant or descendant or the sister, brother, stepmother, stepfather, [or] stepdaughter or stepson of the other party to the incest;(b) the accused shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, to have had knowledge, at the time of the alleged offence, of the relationship existing between him or her and the other party to the incest"; and(b) the substitution for subsection (2) of the following subsection:"(2) Whenever the fact that any lawful and binding marriage was contracted is relevant to the issue at criminal proceedings at which an accused is charged with incest as contemplated in section 12 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, such fact may be proved prima facie in the manner provided in section 237 for the proof of the existence of a lawful and binding marriage of a person charged with bigamy.".13. The substitution for section 261 of the following section:"Rape, compelled rape, sexual assault compelled sexual assault and compelled self-sexual assault261. (1) If the evidence on a charge of rape or compelled rape, as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or any attempt to commit any of those offences, does not prove any such offence or an attempt to commit any such offence, but the offence of—(a) assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm;(b) common assault;(c) sexual assault as contemplated in section 5 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(d) compelled sexual assault as contemplated in section 6 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(e) compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(f) incest as contemplated in section 12 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(g) having committed an act of consensual sexual penetration with a child as contemplated in section 15 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007; or(h) having committed an act of consensual sexual violation with a child as contemplated in section 16 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 2007, the accused may be found guilty of the offence so proved.(2) If the evidence on a charge of sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in sections 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, does not prove any such offence but the offence of—(a) common assault or;(b) having committed an act of consensual sexual violation with a child as contemplated in section 16 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007,the accused may be found guilty of the offence so proved.".14. The amendment of section 266 by the substitution for paragraph (b) of the following paragraph;"(b) [indecent assault] sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in sections 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively; or".15. The amendment of section 267 by the substitution for that section of the following section:"Common assault267. If the evidence on a charge of common assault proves the offence of [indecent assault] sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in sections 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, the accused may be found guilty of [indecent assault] any such offence, or, if the evidence on such a charge does not prove the offence of common assault but the offence of pointing a fire-arm, air-gun or air-pistol in contravention of any law, the accused may be found guilty of that offence.".16. The amendment of section 268 by the substitution for that section of the following section:"Statutory unlawful carnal intercourse268. If the evidence on a charge of unlawful carnal intercourse or attempted unlawful carnal intercourse with another person in contravention of any statute does not prove that offence but—(a) the offence of [indecent assault] sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively;(b) the offence of common assault; or(c) the statutory offence of—(i) committing an immoral or indecent act with such other person;(ii) soliciting, enticing or importuning such other person to have unlawful carnal intercourse;(iii) soliciting, enticing or importuning such other person to commit an immoral or indecent act; or(iv) conspiring with such other person to have unlawful carnal intercourse,the accused may be found guilty of the offence so proved."17. The repeal of section 269.18. The amendment of section 276A—(a) by the substitution in subsection (1) for paragraph (b) of the following paragraph:"(b) for a fixed period not exceeding three years, or in the case of a conviction for any offence referred to in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, for a fixed period not exceeding five years.": and(b) by the insertion after subsection (2) of the following subsection:"(2A) Punishment imposed under paragraph (h) or (i) of section 276(1) on a person convicted of any sexual offence shall, if practicable and if the convicted person demonstrates the potential to benefit from treatment, include the attendance of and participation in a sex offence specific treatment programme as prescribed in terms of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, the cost of which shall be borne by the convicted person himself or herself.".19. The amendment of section 299A by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:"(1) When a court sentences a person to imprisonment for—(a) murder or any other offence which involves the intentional killing of a person;(b) rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively;(c) robbery where the wielding of a fire-arm or any other dangerous weapon or the infliction of grievous bodily harm or the robbery of a motor vehicle is involved;(d) [assault of a sexual nature] sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively;(e) kidnapping; or(f) any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence contemplated in paragraphs (a) to (e),it shall inform—(i) the complainant; or(ii) in the case of murder or any other offence contemplated in paragraph (a), any immediate relative of the deceased,if he or she is present that he or she has a right, subject to the directives issued by the Commissioner of Correctional Services under subsection (4), to make representations when placement of the prisoner on parole, on day parole or under correctional supervision is considered or to attend any relevant meeting of the parole board.".20. The amendment of section 335A—(a) by the substitution for subsection (2) of the following subsection:"(2) Any person who contravenes the provisions of subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine [not exceeding RI 500] or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding [one year] three years or to both such fine and such imprisonment if the person whose identity has been revealed is over the age of 18 years, and if such person is under the age of 18 years, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both such fine and such imprisonment."; and(b) by the addition after subsection (2) of the following subsection:"(3) The provisions of section 300 are applicable, with the changes required by the context, upon the conviction of a person in terms of subsection (2) and if the person whose identity has been revealed suffered any physical, psychological or other injury or loss of income or support.".21. The amendment of section 335B by the substitution for subsection (1) of the following subsection:(1) If a police official charged with the investigation of a case is of the opinion that it is necessary that a minor or a person who is mentally disabled in respect of whom it is alleged that [an offence of an indecent or violent nature] a sexual offence as contemplated in section 1 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, or an offence of a violent nature has been committed be examined by a district surgeon or, if he is not available, by a registered medical practitioner, but that the parent or guardian or curator or custodian of such minor or mentally disabled person(a) cannot be traced within a reasonable time;(b) cannot grant consent in time;(c) is a suspect in respect of the offence in consequence of which the examination must be conducted;(d) unreasonably refuses to consent that the examination be conducted;(e) is incompetent on account of mental disorder to consent that the examination be conducted; or(f) is deceased,a magistrate may, on the written application of that police official and if he is satisfied that the medical examination is necessary, grant the necessary consent that such examination be conducted.".22. The substitution for Schedule 1 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 1(Sections 40 and 42)Treason.Sedition.Public violence.Murder.Culpable homicide.Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 and 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.[Indecent assault] Sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.[Sodomy.]Any sexual offence against a child or a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in Part 2 of Chapter 3 or the( whole of Chapter 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007. respectively.Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person contemplated in section 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Bestiality as contemplated in section 13 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Robbery.Kidnapping.Child stealing.Assault, when a dangerous wound is inflicted.Arson.Malicious injury to property.Breaking or entering any premises, whether under the common law or a statutory provision, with intent to commit an offence.Theft, whether under the common law or a statutory provision.Receiving stolen property knowing it to have been stolen.Fraud.Forgery or uttering a forged document knowing it to have been forged.Offences relating to the coinage.Any offence, except the offence of escaping from lawful custody in circumstances other than the circumstances referred to immediately hereunder, the punishment wherefor may be a period of imprisonment exceeding six months without the option of a fine.Escaping from lawful custody, where the person concerned is in such custody in respect of any offence referred to in this Schedule or is in such custody in respect of the offence of escaping from lawful custody.Any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence referred to in this Schedule.".23. The substitution for Part II of Schedule 2 of thefollowing Part:"PART II (Sections 59,72)Treason.Sedition.Murder.Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.Any sexual offence against a child or a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in Part 2 of Chapter 3 or the whole of Chapter 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person contemplated in section 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Robbery.Assault, when a dangerous wound is inflicted.Arson.Breaking or entering any premises, whether under the common law or a statutory provision, with intent to commit an offence.Theft, whether under the common law or a statutory provision, receiving stolen property knowing it to have been stolen, fraud, forgery or uttering a forged document knowing it to have been forged, in each case if the amount or value involved in the offence exceeds R2 500.Any offence under any law relating to the illicit dealing in or possession of precious metals or precious stones.Any offence under any law relating to the illicit—(a) possession of—(i) dagga exceeding 115 grams; or(ii) any other dependence producing drugs; or(b) conveyance or supply of dependence-producing drugs.Any offence relating to the coinage.Any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence referred to in this Part.".24. The substitution for Schedule 5 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 5(Sections 58 and 60 (11) and (11A) and Schedule 6)Treason.Murder.Attempted murder involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, in circumstances other than those referred to in Schedule 6.Any trafficking related offence by a commercial carrier as contemplated in section 71(6) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Any offence referred to in section 13(f) of the Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act, 1992 (Act No. 140 of 1992), if it is alleged that—(a) the value of the dependence-producing substance in question is more than R50 000,00; or(b) the value of the dependence-producing substance in question is more than R10 000,00 and that the offence was committed by a person, group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy; or(c) the offence was committed by any law enforcement officer.Any offence relating to the dealing in or smuggling of ammunition, firearms, explosives or armament, or the possession of an automatic or semi-automatic firearm, explosives or armament.Any offence in contravention of section 36 of the Arms and Ammunition Act, 1969 (Act No. 75 of 1969), on account of being in possession of more than 1 000 rounds of ammunition intended for firing in an arm contemplated in section 39(2)(a)(i) of that Act.Any offence relating to exchange control, extortion, fraud, forgery, uttering, theft, or any offence referred to in Part 1 to 4, or section 17, 20 or 21 (in so far as it relates to the afore mentioned offences) of Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act, 2004—(a) involving amounts of more than R500 000,00; or(b) involving amounts of more than R100 000,00, if it is alleged that the offence was committed by a person, group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy; or(c) if it is alleged that the offence was committed by any law enforcement officer—(i) involving amounts of more than R10 000,00; or(ii) as a member of a group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy.[Indecent assault] Sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively on a child under the age of 16 years.An offence referred to in Schedule 1—(a) and the accused has previously been convicted of an offence referred to in Schedule 1; or(b) which was allegedly committed whilst he or she was released on bail in respect of an offence referred to in Schedule 1.The offences referred to in section 4 (2) or (3), 13 or 14 (in so far as it relates to the aforementioned sections) of the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and Related Activities Act, 2004.".25. The substitution for Schedule 6 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 6(Sections 50 (6), 58 and 60 (11) and (11A))Murder, when—(a) it was planned or premeditated;(b) the victim was—(i) a law enforcement officer performing his or her functions as such, whether on duty or not, or a law enforcement officer who was killed by virtue of his or her holding such a position; or(ii) a person who has given or was likely to give material evidence with reference to any offence referred to in Schedule 1;(c) the death of the victim was caused by the accused in committing or attempting to commit or after having committed or having attempted to commit one of the following offences:(i) Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively; or(ii) robbery with aggravating circumstances; or(d) the offence was committed by a person, group of persons or syndicate acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy.Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively—(a) when committed—(i) in circumstances where the victim was raped more than once, whether by the accused or by any co-perpetrator or accomplice;(ii) by more than one person, where such persons acted in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy;(iii) by a person who is charged with having committed two or more offences of rape; or(iv) by a person, knowing that he has(v) acquired immune deficiency syndrome or the human immunodeficiency virus;(b) where the victim—(i) is a [girl] person under the age of 16 years;(ii) is a physically disabled [woman] person who, due to his or her physical disability, is rendered particularly vulnerable; or(iii) is a [mentally ill woman] person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in section 1 of the [Mental Health Act, 1973 (Act 18 of 1973)] Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;(c) involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person as contemplated in section 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Robbery, involving—(a) the use by the accused or any co-perpetrators or participants of a firearm;(b) the infliction of grievous bodily harm by the accused or any of the co-perpetrators or participants; or(c) the taking of a motor vehicle.[Indecent assault on a child under the age of 16 years, involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.]An offence referred to in Schedule 5—(a) and the accused has previously been convicted of an offence referred to in Schedule 5 or this Schedule; or(b) which was allegedly committed whilst he or she was released on bail in respect of an offence referred to in Schedule 5 or this Schedule.The offences referred to in section 2, 3(2)(a), 4 (1), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 14 (in so far as it relates to the aforementioned sections) of the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and Related Activities Act, 2004, section 2 (1) and (2) of the Civil Aviation Offences Act, 1972 (Act No. 10 of 1972), section 26(1)(j) of the Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, 1993 (Act No. 87 of 1993) and section 56(1)(h) of the Nuclear Energy Act, 1999 (Act No. 46 of 1999).".26. The substitution for Schedule 7 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 7 (Section 59A)Public violence.Culpable homicide.Bestiality as contemplated in section 13 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Assault, involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.Arson.Housebreaking, whether under the common law or a statutory provision, with intent to commit an offence.Malicious injury to property.Robbery, other than a robbery with aggravating circumstances, if the amount involved in the offence does not exceed R20 000,00.Theft and any offence referred to in section 264(1)(a), (b) and (c), if the amount involved in the offence does not exceed R20 000,00.Any offence in terms of any law relating to the illicit possession of dependence-producing drugs.Any offence relating to extortion, fraud, forgery or uttering if the amount of value involved in the offence does not exceed R20 000,00.Any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence referred to in this Schedule.".
Act 74 of 1983Child Care Act1. The amendment of section 1 by the substitution for the definition of "commercial sexual exploitation" of the following definition:"'commercial sexual exploitation" means [the procurement of a child] engaging the services of a child to perform a sexual act or to produce child pornography as contemplated in section 17 or 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, for a financial or other reward payable to the child, the parents or guardian of the child[, the procurer] or any other person;".
Act 133 of 1993Prevention of Family Violence Act1. The repeal of section 5.
Act 92 of 1996Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act1. The amendment of section 1 by the substitution for the definitions of "incest" and "rape" of the following definitions:"'incest' means sexual intercourse between two persons who are related to each other in a degree which precludes a lawful marriage between them as contemplated in section 12 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;'rape' [also includes statutory rape as referred to in sections 14 and 15 of the Sexual Offences Act, 1957 (Act 23 of 1957)] refers to the offences contemplated in sections 3, 4 and 15 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;".
Act 105 of 1997Criminal Law Amendment Act1. The amendment of Schedule 2 by—(a) the substitution for Part I of the following part:"PART IMurder, when—(a) it was planned or premeditated;(b) the victim was—(i) a law enforcement officer performing his or her functions as such, whether on duty or not; or(ii) a person who has given or was likely to give material evidence with reference to any offence referred to in Schedule 1 to the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977), at criminal proceedings in any court;(c) the death of the victim was caused by the accused in committing or attempting to commit or after having committed or attempted to commit one of the following offences:(i) Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively; or(ii) robbery with aggravating circumstances as defined in section 1 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977); or(d) the offence was committed by a person, group of persons or syndicate acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy.Rape as contemplated in section 3 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007(a) when committed—(i) in circumstances where the victim was raped more than once whether by the accused or by any co-perpetrator or accomplice;(ii) by more than one person, where such persons acted in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy;(iii) by a person who has been convicted of two or more offences of rape or compelled rape, but has not yet been sentenced in respect of such convictions; or(iv) by a person, knowing that he has acquired immune deficiency syndrome or the human immunodeficiency virus;(b) where the victim—(i) is a [girl] person under the age of 16 years;(ii) is a physically disabled [woman] person who, due to his or her physical disability, is rendered particularly vulnerable; or(iii) is a [mentally ill woman] person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in section 1 of the [Mental Health Act, 1973 (Act 18 of 1973)] Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;or(c) involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.Compelled rape as contemplated in section 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007—(a) when committed—(i) in circumstances where the victim was raped more than once by one or more than one person;(ii) by a person who has been convicted of two or more offences of rape or compelled rape, but has not yet been sentenced in respect of such convictions; or(iii) under circumstances where the accused knows that the person committing the rape has the acquired immune deficiency syndrome or the human immunodeficiency virus;(b) where the victim—(i) is a person under the age of 16 years;(ii) is a physically disabled person who, due to his or her physical disability, is rendered particularly vulnerable; or(iii) is a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in section 1 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007; or(c) involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.Any offence referred to in section 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 14 (in so far as it relates to the aforementioned sections) of the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and Related Activities Act, 2004, when it is proved that the offence has—(a) endangered the life or caused serious bodily injury to or the death of, any person, or any number or group of persons;(b) caused serious risk to the health or safety of the public or any segment of the public; or(c) created a serious public emergency situation or a general insurrection.Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person contemplated in section 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007."; and(b) the substitution for Part III of the following Part;"PART IIIRape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively in circumstances other than those referred to in Part I.[Indecent assault on a child under the age of 16 years, involving the infliction of bodily harm.]Sexual exploitation of a child or sexual exploitation of a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in section 17 or 23 or using a child for child pornography or using a person who is mentally disabled for pornographic purposes, as contemplated in section 20(1) or 26(1) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act. 2007, respectively.Assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm on a child under the age of 16 years.Any offence in contravention of section 36 of the Arms and Ammunitions Act, 1969 (Act No. 75 of 1969), on account of being in possession of more than 1000 rounds of ammunition intended for firing in an arm contemplated in section 39(2)(a)(i) of that Act.Any trafficking related offence by a commercial carrier as contemplated in section 71(6) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.".
Act 112 of 1998Witness Protection Act1. The substitution for the Schedule of the following Schedule:ScheduleOFFENCES IN RESPECT OF WHICH A WITNESS OR RELATED PERSON MAY BE PLACED UNDER PROTECTION1. Treason.2. Sedition.3. Murder.4. Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in sections 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.5. Public violence.6. Robbery—(a) when there are aggravating circumstances; or(b) involving the taking of a motor vehicle.7. Kidnapping.8. Defeating the ends of justice.9. Perjury.[10. [Indecent assault on a child under the age of 16 years, involving the infliction of grievous bodily harm.]10. Any sexual offence against a child or a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in Part 2 of Chapter 3 or the whole of Chapter 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.10A. Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person or commercial carrier as contemplated in section 71 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.11. Any offence referred to in section 13(f) of the Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act, 1992 (Act No. 140 of 1992), if it is alleged that—(a) the value of the dependence-producing substance in question is more than R10 000,00; or(b) the value of the dependence-producing substance in question is more than R5 000,00 and that the offence was committed by a person, group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy; or(c) the offence was committed by any law enforcement officer.12. Any offence referred to in section 1 or 1A of the Intimidation Act, 1982 (Act No. 72 of 1982).13. Any offence relating to—(a) the dealing in or smuggling of ammunition, firearms, explosives or armament; or(b) the possession of an automatic or semi-automatic firearm, explosives or armament.14. Any offence relating to exchange control, extortion, fraud, forgery, uttering, theft, or an offence referred to in Part 1 to 4, or section 17, 20 or 21 (in so far as it relates to the aforementioned offences) of Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act, 2004.(a) involving amounts of more than R50 000,00; or(b) involving amounts of more than R10 000,00, if it is alleged that the offence was committed by a person, group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy; or(c) if it is alleged that the offence was committed by any law enforcement officer—(i) involving amounts of more than R10 000,00; or(ii) as a member of a group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy.15. Any offence referred to in the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, 1998.16. Any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence referred to in this Schedule.17. Any other offence which the Minister has determined by regulation.18. Any other offence in respect of which it is alleged that the offence was committed by—(a) a person, group of persons, syndicate or any enterprise acting in the execution or furtherance of a common purpose or conspiracy; or(b) a law enforcement officer, and in respect of which the Director is of the opinion that the safety of a witness who is or may be required to give evidence, or who has given evidence in respect of such an offence in any proceedings or any related person, warrants protection.19. Any other offence in respect of which the Director, after having considered the factors mentioned in section 10(1) and any information gained in terms of section 10(2), is of the opinion that the safety of a witness who is or may be required to give evidence, or who has given evidence in respect of such an offence in any proceedings or any related person, warrants protection.".
Act 121 of 1998Prevention of Organised Crime Act1. The substitution for Schedule 1 of the following Schedule—"Schedule 1(Sections 1, 38, 50, 51, 52, 54, 58 and 73)1. murder;2. rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively;3. kidnapping;4. arson;5. public violence;6. robbery;7. assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm;8. [indecent assault] sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively;9. [the statutory offence of— (a) unlawful carnal intercourse with a girl under a specified age;(b) committing an immoral or indecent act with a girl or a boy under a specified age;(c) soliciting or enticing such girl or boy to the commission of an immoral or indecent act] any offence contemplated in Part 2 of Chapter 3 or the whole of Chapter 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007;10. any offence under any legislation dealing with gambling, gaming or lotteries;11. contravention of section 20 (1) of the Sexual Offences Act, 1957 (Act No. 23 of 1957);12. any offence contemplated in Part 1 to 4, or section 17, 18, 20 or 21 (in so far as it relates to the aforementioned offences) of Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act, 2004;13. extortion;14. childstealing;15. breaking or entering any premises whether under the common law or a statutory provision, with intent to commit an offence;16. malicious injury to property;17. theft, whether under the common law or a statutory provision;18. any offence under section 36 or 37 of the General Law Amendment Act, 1955 (Act No. 62 of 1955);19. fraud;20. forgery or uttering a forged document knowing it to have been forged;21. offences relating to the coinage;22. any offence referred to in section 13 of the Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act, 1992 (Act No. 140 of 1992);23. any offence relating to the dealing in or smuggling of ammunition, firearms, explosives or armament and the unlawful possession of such firearms, explosives or armament;24. any offence in contravention of section 36 of the Arms and Ammunition Act, 1969 (Act No. 75 of 1969);25. dealing in, being in possession of or conveying endangered, scarce and protected game or plants or parts or remains thereof in contravention of a statute or provincial ordinance;26. any offence relating to exchange control;27. any offence under any law relating to the illicit dealing in or possession of precious metals or precious stones;28. any offence contemplated in sections 1(1) and 1A (1) of the Intimidation Act, 1982 (Act No. 72 of 1982);29. defeating or obstructing the course of justice;30. perjury;31. subornation of perjury;32. any offence referred to in Chapter 3 or 4 of this Act;32A. any specified offence as defined in the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and Related Activities Act, 2004;33. any offence the punishment wherefor may be a period of imprisonment exceeding one year without the option of a fine;34. any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any offence referred to in this Schedule.".
Act 16 of 1999Military Discipline Supplementary Measures Act1. The amendment of section 3 by the substitution for subsection (3) of the following subsection:"(3) When a person who is subject to the Code is suspected of having committed murder, treason, rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or culpable homicide in the Republic, the matter will be dealt with in accordance with section 27 of the National Prosecuting Authority Act, 1998 (Act No. 32 of 1998), and any ensuing trial shall take place in a civilian court.".2. The amendment of section 7 by the substitution for paragraph (a) of subsection (1) of the following paragraph:"(a) in matters where treason, murder, rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or culpable homicide committed outside the Republic, or where contraventions of section 4 or 5 of the Code are involved, composed of five members, being— ".3. The amendment of section 9 by the substitution for subsections (2) and (3) of the following subsections:"(2) A Court of a Senior Military Judge may, subject to subsection (3), try any person subject to the Code for any offence, other than murder, treason, rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or culpable homicide committed within the Republic, and may on conviction sentence the offender to any punishment referred to in section 12.(3) In any case where the charge or one of the charges brought or to be brought against an accused is murder, treason, rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or culpable homicide committed beyond the borders of the Republic, or is a contravention of section 4 or 5 of the Code, the powers conferred by this section shall be exercised by three senior military judges sitting together under the presidency of the senior of those judges.".4. The amendment of section 30 by the substitution for subsection (8) of the following subsection:"(8) When a preliminary investigation is held in respect of treason, murder, rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, or culpable homicide, committed outside the Republic, or a contravention of section 4 or 5 of the Code or any offence punishable by imprisonment exceeding a period of 10 years, the prosecution counsel shall, subject to subsection (10), lead the evidence of every witness called by him or her and any witness may be cross-examined by the accused and may thereafter be re-examined by the prosecution counsel in relation to any evidence given by that witness under cross-examination and may at any stage of the proceedings be recalled by the presiding judge, commanding officer or recording officer for the purpose of being further examined or cross-examined, as the case may be.".
Act 56 of 2001Private Security Industry Regulation Act1. The substitution for the Schedule of the following Schedule:"Schedule TABLE OF OFFENCESHigh treason.Sedition.Sabotage.Terrorism.Public violence.Arson.Malicious damage to property.Intimidation.Rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.Murder.Robbery.Culpable homicide involving the use of a firearm or any form of intentional violence.Kidnapping.Assault with the intention to cause serious bodily harm.[Indecent assault] Sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.Any sexual offence against a child or a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in Part 2 of Chapter 3 or the whole of Chapter 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively.Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person contemplated in section 71(1) or (2) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007.Child stealing.Fraud.Forgery or uttering of a forged document knowing it to have been forged.Breaking or entering any premises, whether in terms of common or statutory law, with the intention to commit an offence.Theft, whether in terms of common law or statutory law.Receiving stolen property knowing it to have been stolen.Extortion.Defeating the ends of justice.Perjury, whether in terms of common law or statutory law.An offence referred to in Part I to 4, or section 17, 20 or 21 (in so far as it relates to the aforementioned offences) of Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act, 2004.An offence involving the illicit dealing in dependence-producing substances.Any offence in terms of statutory law involving an element of dishonesty.Any offence in terms of the Domestic Violence Act, 1998 (Act No. 116 of 1998).Any offence in terms of the Explosives Act, 1956 (Act No. 26 of 1956).Any offence in terms of the Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act, 1998 (Act No. 15 of 1998).Any offence in terms of legislation pertaining to the control over the possession and use of firearms and ammunition.Any offence in terms of the Interception and Monitoring Prohibition Act, 1992 (Act No. 127 of 1992).Any offence in terms of the Intelligence Services Act, 1994 (Act No. 38 of 1994).Any offence in terms of the Protection of Information Act, 1982 (Act No. 84 of 1982).Crimen injuria.Any offence in terms of statutory law involving cruelty to an animal.Any offence in terms of any law relating to illicit dealing in or possession of precious medals or precious stones.Any offence in terms of statutory law punishable by a period of imprisonment exceeding two years without the option of a fine.Any conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit any of the above offences.".
Act 13 of 2002Immigration Act1. The substitution for Schedule 1 of the following Schedule:"Schedule 1OFFENCES REFERRED TO IN SECTION 28(a) AND (b) OF THIS ACTTreason against the RepublicMurderRape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively [other than statutory rape][Indecent assault] Sexual assault, compelled sexual assault or compelled self-sexual assault as contemplated in section 5, 6 or 7 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectivelyAny sexual offence against a child or a person who is mentally disabled as contemplated in Part 2 of Chapter 3 or the whole of Chapter 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively Trafficking in persons for sexual purposes by a person as contemplated in section 71(1), (2) or (6) of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007RobberyKidnappingAssault when a dangerous wound is inflictedArsonAny conspiracy, incitement or attempt to commit an offence referred to in this Schedule".
Act 15 of 2003Explosives Act1. The amendment of section 30 by the substitution for paragraph (n) of subsection (1) of the following paragraph:"(n) any offence involving sabotage, terrorism, public violence, arson, intimidation, rape or compelled rape as contemplated in section 3 or 4 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, respectively, kidnapping or child stealing; or".
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History of this document

03 April 2024
01 December 2021
22 January 2014
16 June 2008
Commenced

Note: See section 72(2)(b). Commences Chapter 6 (sections 40 - 53).

21 March 2008
Commenced

Note: See section 72(2)(a). Commences Chapter 5 (sections 27 - 39).

16 December 2007
Commenced

Note: See section 72(1). Commences the whole Act except sections 27 - 53

13 December 2007
Assented to

Cited documents 21

Legislation 21
1. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 4524 citations
2. Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 3602 citations
3. Magistrates' Courts Act, 1944 2706 citations
4. Superior Courts Act, 2013 1497 citations
5. Prevention of Organised Crime Act, 1998 1029 citations
6. Electronic Communications Act, 2005 914 citations
7. Higher Education Act 533 citations
8. Children's Act, 2005 514 citations
9. Prescription Act, 1969 508 citations
10. Mental Health Care Act, 2002 362 citations
11. Immigration Act, 2002 281 citations
12. National Prosecuting Authority Act, 1998 202 citations
13. Films and Publications Act, 1996 167 citations
14. Domestic Violence Act, 1998 123 citations
15. General Law Amendment Act, 1955 123 citations
16. Social Assistance Act, 2004 103 citations
17. Sexual Offences Act, 1957 88 citations
18. Nuclear Energy Act, 1999 67 citations
19. Interception and Monitoring Prohibition Act, 1992 38 citations
20. Witness Protection Act, 1998 23 citations
21. Prevention of Family Violence Act, 1993 13 citations

Documents citing this one 384

Judgment 261
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101. Mthimkhulu obo LP Thabede v MEC of Health and Another (4056/2019) [2022] ZAFSHC 84 (7 July 2022)
102. Muller v BOE Bank Ltd and Others (8723/1998) [2010] ZAWCHC 121 (25 May 2010)
103. Mzinyane v S (A 166/19) [2022] ZAGPJHC 40 (25 January 2022)
104. Netshifhefhe v S (A 233/17) [2018] ZAGPPHC 393 (20 March 2018)
105. Ngcama v Minister of Police and Another (2555/2011) [2023] ZAECMHC 41 (1 August 2023)
106. Ngobeni v S (A 684/16) [2018] ZAGPPHC 180 (23 February 2018)
107. Ngobeni v S (A157/23) [2024] ZAGPPHC 523 (24 May 2024)
108. Nkonwane v S (CA 49/20) [2024] ZANWHC 90 (28 March 2024)
109. Nkosi v S (A 331/16) [2018] ZAGPPHC 649 (2 March 2018)
110. Nkosi v S (AR7/2023) [2024] ZAKZPHC 27 (16 February 2024)
111. Ntshakala v S (A 584/2016) [2018] ZAGPPHC 497 (26 January 2018)
112. Nwadinobi and Others v Citiq Residential (Pty) Ltd (37758/2020) [2022] ZAGPJHC 391 (20 June 2022)
113. Nyalenda v S (CA 71/2019) [2024] ZANWHC 111 (16 April 2024)
114. Oageng v S (525/17) [2019] ZAGPPHC 387 (16 April 2019)
115. P H K v S (A67/2022) [2022] ZAFSHC 165 (13 December 2022)
116. P N v S (A192/2023) [2024] ZAGPPHC 331 (28 March 2024)
117. Patsa v S (CA 29/2021) [2024] ZANWHC 94 (3 April 2024)
118. R v V (2700/2008) [2014] ZAECPEHC 97 (17 December 2014)
119. Ramokoka v S (A181/2019) [2022] ZAGPJHC 724 (23 September 2022)
120. S Mkhize (CA&R 20/2022) [2022] ZANCHC 47 (4 October 2022)
121. S v Habib (A28/2023) [2023] ZAGPJHC 549 (23 May 2023)
122. S v Mnweba and Another (SS 100/2021) [2022] ZAGPJHC 739 (16 September 2022)
123. S v A F (A 51/2016) [2018] ZAWCHC 15 (9 February 2018)
124. S v A M and Another (CC27/2022) [2024] ZAECELLC 29 (29 February 2024)
125. S v Ackerman (SS090/2021) [2023] ZAGPJHC 383 (24 April 2023)
126. S v Banda (CA 21/2018) [2023] ZANWHC 626 (21 December 2023)
127. S v Beale (A283/18) [2019] ZAWCHC 115 (3 May 2019)
128. S v Bekker (A 343/20) [2022] ZAGPPHC 888 (7 June 2022)
129. S v Botha (22/2022) [2023] ZAECGHC 37 (28 April 2023)
130. S v Buzani (CA&R 41/2021) [2022] ZAECBHC 9 (10 June 2022)
131. S v Carolus (32/2007) [2008] ZASCA 14 (20 March 2008)
132. S v Chauke (A 139/20) [2022] ZAGPJHC 295 (15 March 2022)
133. S v D S (769/2013) [2014] ZASCA 142 (26 September 2014)
134. S v Dingizwayo (CA 40/2018) [2023] ZANWHC 617 (21 December 2023)
135. S v Dlamini (A215/22) [2023] ZAGPPHC 657 (13 June 2023)
136. S v Dos Santos (A26/2014) [2017] ZAGPPHC 641 (7 September 2017)
137. S v E A (A31/2020) [2023] ZAGPPHC 906 (7 August 2023)
138. S v E A and Others (CC46/2019) [2024] ZAWCHC 79 (17 May 2024)
139. S v Eze (14/546/2013) [2017] ZAGPRD 1 (27 November 2017)
140. S v Frederiksen (33/2016) [2018] ZAFSHC 27 (15 March 2018)
141. S v Geldenhuys (470/2007) [2008] ZASCA 47 (31 March 2008)
142. S v Godla (CA 48/2018) [2023] ZANWHC 625 (22 December 2023)
143. S v Gonya (A 185/16) [2017] ZAGPPHC 11 (14 November 2017)
144. S v Hargreaves (AR 669/2013) [2015] ZAKZPHC 19 (12 February 2015)
145. S v Hendricks and Another (CA & R 14/2023) [2023] ZANCHC 71 (27 October 2023)
146. S v J G (A 214/2022) [2023] ZAGPPHC 548 (23 May 2023)
147. S v Jantjies (CC42/20) [2022] ZAWCHC 148 (6 October 2022)
148. S v Jezile and Others (A 127/2014) [2015] ZAWCHC 202 (23 March 2015)
149. S v Jita (18/18) [2018] ZAGPPHC 622 (12 February 2018)
150. S v Jita (18/2018) [2018] ZAGPPHC 77 (8 February 2018)
151. S v Johannes (TSOC 73/2012) [2013] ZAWCHC 114 (21 August 2013)
152. S v July (CA&R 31/2023) [2023] ZAECGHC 96 (11 October 2023)
153. S v Kalata (34/2023) [2023] ZAFSHC 190 (7 September 2023)
154. S v Kalumwaga (A 589/16) [2018] ZAGPPHC 381 (16 April 2018)
155. S v LL Nkoto (A 44/2021) [2022] ZAFSHC 22 (12 May 2022)
156. S v Latakgomo (A 99/16) [2022] ZAGPPHC 917 (17 June 2022)
157. S v Lebele (CC07/2021) [2023] ZAGPPHC 567 (9 May 2023)
158. S v Lekgetho (A152/2022) [2023] ZAGPJHC 926 (16 August 2023)
159. S v Lenkopane (CA13/2023; R/CA91/2019) [2024] ZANWHC 31 (16 February 2024)
160. S v Lolwane (CA28/2022) [2024] ZANWHC 32 (16 February 2024)
161. S v M (A343/2018) [2019] ZAWCHC 116 (14 May 2019)
162. S v M M A (A153/2022) [2023] ZAGPJHC 89 (7 February 2023)
163. S v Madikizela (A 79/2021) [2022] ZAGPJHC 376 (17 June 2022)
164. S v Madinga (30/2022) [2023] ZAECELLC 31 (15 September 2023)
165. S v Madyavanhu and Others (K/S 38/2016) [2022] ZANCHC 66 (21 October 2022)
166. S v Madyo (CA 191/2014) [2015] ZAECGHC 62 (28 May 2015)
167. S v Mahlangu (A176/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 122 (10 July 2023)
168. S v Mahlo (A 61/17) [2019] ZAGPPHC 507 (31 January 2019)
169. S v Makgobe (CA 28/2023) [2024] ZANWHC 12 (30 January 2024)
170. S v Makhakha (SS41/2012) [2013] ZAWCHC 223 (11 June 2013)
171. S v Makhathini and Another (A260/2021) [2023] ZAGPPHC 518 (3 May 2023)
172. S v Makhubo (A20/2023) [2023] ZAFSHC 185 (2 October 2023)
173. S v Maleka (SS68/2021) [2022] ZAGPJHC 1276 (30 November 2022)
174. S v Mali (CA&R 217/2015) [2017] ZAECGHC 55 (16 May 2017)
175. S v Mali (CC36/2022) [2024] ZAECGHC 53 (29 February 2024)
176. S v Manecotshwa (SS13/2022) [2024] ZAGPJHC 1623 (25 March 2024)
177. S v Mantshongo (Judgment) (CC 53/2022) [2023] ZAECGHC 3 (19 January 2023)
178. S v Masango (A175/2021) [2024] ZAGPJHC 115 (5 February 2024)
179. S v Mashibini (A38/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 48 (9 March 2023)
180. S v Masunga (A 938/15) [2018] ZAGPPHC 275 (4 May 2018)
181. S v Mathunjwa (AR351/2017) [2023] ZAKZPHC 58 (29 May 2023)
182. S v Matome (565/2011) [2012] ZASCA 14 (16 March 2012)
183. S v Maxabaniso (CA&R 388/2014) [2015] ZAECGHC 60 (5 May 2015)
184. S v Maxhegwana (CA&R 67/2023) [2023] ZAECGHC 33 (18 April 2023)
185. S v Mbonani (A297/2022 DPP) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1086 (28 September 2023)
186. S v Mchunu (CC 168/2011) [2011] ZAKZDHC 89 (16 September 2011)
187. S v Mkhize and Another (CC 12/2010) [2010] ZAKZPHC 65 (23 September 2010)
188. S v Mkhwanazi (A 190/2021) [2022] ZAGPPHC 1199 (11 July 2022)
189. S v Modimokwane (SS 20/2022) [2023] ZAGPJHC 1208 (11 October 2023)
190. S v Mofokeng (A134/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 67 (30 March 2023)
191. S v Mofokeng (R 8/2020) [2022] ZAFSHC 8 (29 April 2022)
192. S v Mokwele (A34/2021) [2024] ZAGPPHC 48 (22 January 2024)
193. S v Mokwena (30/2023) [2024] ZANWHC 26 (6 February 2024)
194. S v Motau (A53/2023) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1272 (17 November 2023)
195. S v Motha (AR 414/2010) [2011] ZAKZPHC 24 (31 May 2011)
196. S v Motseko (Regional Magistrates' Case number : H169/2018; Review Number : HC 16/2023) [2023] ZANWHC 592 (16 November 2023)
197. S v Motsoane (A178/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 168 (15 September 2023)
198. S v Msiza and Another (A223/22) [2023] ZAGPPHC 944 (16 August 2023)
199. S v Msomi (AR 191/2020) [2022] ZAKZPHC 43 (2 September 2022)
200. S v Msutu (CA&R24/2022) [2023] ZAECGHC 87 (14 September 2023)
201. S v Mtambo (AR71/2021) [2023] ZAKZPHC 137 (3 November 2023)
202. S v Mthimunye (A62/2023) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1309 (29 November 2023)
203. S v Mthombeni (AR 140/2014) [2014] ZAKZPHC 56 (18 November 2014)
204. S v Mthombeni (AR680/2018P) [2020] ZAKZPHC 2 (8 July 2020)
205. S v Mudau and Others (631/2013) [2014] ZASCA 190 (27 November 2014)
206. S v Mukwevho (Sentence) (SS39/2023) [2023] ZAGPJHC 1433 (26 November 2023)
207. S v Mulaudzi (A259/2019) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1338 (14 December 2023)
208. S v N S (DR42/2023) [2023] ZAKZDHC 65 (26 October 2023)
209. S v NKOSI (A65/2022) [2022] ZAGPPHC 985 (11 November 2022)
210. S v Ncitha (CA&R 116/2022) [2024] ZAECMHC 5 (23 January 2024)
211. S v Ndebele (A 207/2016) [2018] ZAGPJHC 972 (26 June 2018)
212. S v Ndlala (A09/2021) [2023] ZAGPJHC 345 (18 April 2023)
213. S v Ndlangamandla (A 145/2022) [2023] ZAGPPHC 652 (24 May 2023)
214. S v Ndlovu (AR369/2022) [2023] ZAKZPHC 159 (1 December 2023)
215. S v Ndokwane (AR 591/2010) [2011] ZAKZPHC 23 (27 May 2011)
216. S v Ngwato (A 13/17) [2019] ZAGPPHC 496 (31 January 2019)
217. S v Ngxabazi (CA&R 188/2019) [2023] ZAECGHC 109 (7 November 2023)
218. S v Nkunkuma and Others (101/2013) [2013] ZASCA 122 (23 September 2013)
219. S v Ntakatsane (Sentence) (26/2023) [2023] ZAECGHC 106 (27 October 2023)
220. S v Ntantiso (CA&R 198/2021) [2022] ZAECGHC 6 (10 May 2022)
221. S v Ntobeko (SS 122/2022) [2023] ZAGPJHC 358 (21 April 2023)
222. S v Okeke and Another (A173/2020) [2023] ZAGPPHC 86 (23 February 2023)
223. S v P W (CA 7/2022) [2022] ZANCHC 21 (20 May 2022)
224. S v Pepping (Sentencing) (CC03/2021) [2023] ZAECMHC 3 (3 February 2023)
225. S v Phalad (A74/2022) [2023] ZAGPJHC 904 (11 August 2023)
226. S v Pretorius (A 74/2012) [2012] ZAWCHC 167 (7 September 2012)
227. S v R B and Another (1/2023) [2023] ZAGPJHC 1487 (16 November 2023)
228. S v Ranyani (A156/2022) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1351 (18 December 2023)
229. S v S T (47/2022) [2022] ZAECGHC 101 (12 December 2022)
230. S v Salman and Another (CA & R 69/2021) [2023] ZAECMHC 61 (14 November 2023)
231. S v Sangweni (AR 220/2018) [2019] ZAKZPHC 8 (1 March 2019)
232. S v Sani (A126/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 52 (6 March 2023)
233. S v Sebotsa (A108/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 93 (7 June 2023)
234. S v Seleke (A64/2023) [2023] ZAFSHC 149 (29 August 2023)
235. S v Sithole (A105/2021) [2024] ZAGPPHC 59 (18 January 2024)
236. S v Suleiman (A45/2023) [2023] ZAFSHC 132 (15 August 2023)
237. S v Thomas (A44/2023) [2023] ZAFSHC 129 (10 August 2023)
238. S v Tlaki (A182/2022) [2023] ZAFSHC 200 (12 October 2023)
239. S v Tshazi (AR 22/2021) [2022] ZAKZPHC 27 (20 June 2022)
240. S v Tshwala (A14/2022) [2022] ZAGPJHC 794 (5 September 2022)
241. S v Tshwene (AR 562/2019) [2022] ZAKZPHC 11 (18 March 2022)
242. S v Tuku (CA&R 16/2020) [2022] ZANCHC 25 (20 May 2022)
243. S v Tyhobeka (CA&R 158/2020) [2022] ZAECGHC 16 (31 May 2022)
244. S v Ugoka (CC72/2019) [2023] ZAECELLC 44 (17 November 2023)
245. S v Van Schalkwyk [2023] ZAECGHC 116 (23 November 2023)
246. S v Wynkwardt (CC51/2021) [2023] ZAECPEHC 10 (10 March 2023)
247. S v Ximba (1171/18) [2019] ZASCA 111 (16 September 2019)
248. S v Zikhali (Sentence) (CC15/2023) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1215 (10 August 2023)
249. S v Zwane (A27/2023) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1283 (16 November 2023)
250. S v Zwane (A60/2023) [2023] ZAGPPHC 1384 (28 November 2023)
251. SJ v S (CA&R 26/21) [2022] ZAECBHC 34 (6 December 2022)
252. T K v S (A 873/16) [2018] ZAGPPHC 270 (17 April 2018)
253. T v S (A305/2022) [2024] ZAGPPHC 502 (16 May 2024)
254. Trollip v Phatshoane Henney Attorneys and Another (3683/2018) [2022] ZAFSHC 74 (23 June 2022)
255. Tyrrell v S (A 318/17) [2018] ZAGPPHC 597 (28 March 2018)
256. V M v S (CA 39/2021) [2024] ZANWHC 74 (15 March 2024)
257. Van Staden v S (A 259/2022) [2024] ZAGPPHC 533 (27 May 2024)
258. Van der Bank v S (245/2015) [2016] ZASCA 10 (9 March 2016)
259. Venter v S (945/2018) [2020] ZASCA 14 (24 March 2020)
260. Vhuyatsha v National Director of Public Prosecutions (89902/15) [2022] ZAGPPHC 700 (12 May 2022)
261. W v S (CA&R 139/2014) [2014] ZAECGHC 118 (18 December 2014)
Gazette 99
1. Free State Provincial Gazette dated 2015-02-03 number 98
2. Free State Provincial Gazette dated 2015-02-03 number 99
3. Free State Provincial Gazette dated 2015-03-05 number 112
4. Free State Provincial Gazette dated 2021-03-12 number 106
5. Free State Provincial Gazette dated 2023-12-01 number 73
6. Free State Provincial Gazette dated 2024-01-26 number 87
7. Gauteng Provincial Gazette dated 2018-03-28 number 88
8. KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Gazette dated 2017-11-09 number 1895
9. KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Gazette dated 2018-01-04 number 1914
10. KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Gazette dated 2021-02-18 number 2251
11. KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Gazette dated 2024-02-08 number 2652 part 1
12. Mpumalanga Provincial Gazette dated 2017-11-30 number 2880
13. Mpumalanga Provincial Gazette dated 2020-12-25 number 3221
14. Mpumalanga Provincial Gazette dated 2021-01-08 number 3224
15. North-West Provincial Gazette dated 2018-03-13 number 7860
16. Northern Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2017-04-24 number 2089
17. Northern Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2019-09-09 number 2295
18. Northern Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2019-12-30 number 2316
19. Northern Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2021-02-15 number 2395
20. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2012-04-25 number 35277
21. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2014-03-20 number 37449
22. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2014-04-02 number 37520
23. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2015-10-23 number 39318
24. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2017-07-26 number 41005
25. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2020-02-07 number 43000
26. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2020-03-27 number 43146
27. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2021-11-30 number 45562
28. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2022-08-19 number 46736
29. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2022-08-26 number 46795
30. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2022-08-26 number 46796
31. South Africa Government Gazette Regulation Gazette dated 2022-09-02 number 46843
32. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2008-08-15 number 31330
33. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2009-02-17 number 31908
34. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2009-02-18 number 31911
35. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2009-12-29 number 32850
36. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2010-08-03 number 33436
37. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2010-08-13 number 33461
38. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2010-09-02 number 33508
39. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2011-03-23 number 34139
40. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2011-10-19 number 34692
41. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2012-08-02 number 35561
42. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2013-07-09 number 36645
43. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2013-07-29 number 36715
44. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2013-07-29 number 36716
45. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2013-09-06 number 36804
46. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2013-11-06 number 37005
47. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2013-11-15 number 37014
48. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2014-01-22 number 37254
49. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2014-01-22 number 37255
50. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2014-01-27 number 37268
51. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2014-11-19 number 38222
52. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2014-11-24 number 38243
53. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2014-12-12 number 38332
54. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2015-03-03 number 38526
55. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2015-07-07 number 38977
56. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2015-08-28 number 39131
57. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2015-09-30 number 39240
58. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2015-12-15 number 39522
59. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2015-12-18 number 39531 part 1
60. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2016-01-08 number 39587
61. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2016-03-09 number 39792 part 1
62. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2016-05-11 number 39982
63. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2017-01-19 number 40564
64. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2017-06-29 number 40946
65. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2017-07-14 number 40978 part 1
66. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2017-08-02 number 41018
67. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2017-11-24 number 41272
68. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2018-03-16 number 41498 part 1
69. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2018-07-27 number 41796 part 1
70. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2018-09-21 number 41913 part 1
71. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2018-10-29 number 42005
72. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2019-10-03 number 42743
73. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2020-06-04 number 43402
74. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2020-07-03 number 43495 part 1
75. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2020-07-17 number 43528 part 1
76. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2020-08-07 number 43595
77. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2020-12-23 number 44034
78. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2021-02-05 number 44173 part 1
79. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2021-04-09 number 44433
80. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2021-06-01 number 44651
81. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2021-06-18 number 44724 part 1
82. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2021-07-02 number 44799 part 1
83. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2022-01-28 number 45822
84. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2022-01-28 number 45823
85. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2022-02-07 number 45879
86. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2022-10-28 number 47373 part 1
87. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2022-12-09 number 47693
88. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2023-11-10 number 49658
89. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2023-11-17 number 49720 part 1
90. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2024-04-03 number 50429
91. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2024-04-03 number 50430
92. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2024-04-12 number 50479
93. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2024-05-14 number 50652
94. South Africa Government Gazette dated 2024-05-17 number 50665 part 1
95. Western Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2017-02-03 number 7727
96. Western Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2017-08-17 number 7810
97. Western Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2019-04-08 number 8076
98. Western Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2021-03-12 number 8398
99. Western Cape Provincial Gazette dated 2023-11-22 number 8852
Case summary 11
1. Case Summary: M v S (Unreported) Case no. A343/2018 (14 May 2019) Western Cape Division of High Court (Cape Town)
2. Case Summary: S v AF 2018 (1) SACR 377 (WCC)
3. Case Summary: S v Ceylon and Another 2019 (1) SACR 698 (GJ)
4. Case Summary: S v Dos Santos 2018 (1) SACR 20 (GP)
5. Case Summary: S v Lekeka 2021 (1) SACR 106 (FB)
6. Case Summary: S v Sangweni 2019 (1) SACR 672 (KZP)
7. Case Summary: S v Skepe 2019 (2) SACR 349 (ECP)
8. Case summary: Director of Public Prosecutions North Gauteng v Alberts (A835/14) [2016] ZAGPPHC 495 (30 June 2016) 2016 (2) SACR 419 (GP)
9. Case summary: Director of Public Prosecutions, Gauteng v M G (6 of 2017) [2017] ZASCA 82; 2017 (2) SACR 132 (SCA) (02 June 2017)
10. Case summary: Director of Public Prosecutions: Gauteng Division, Pretoria v Hamisi (895 of 2017) [2018] ZASCA 61; 2018 (2) SACR 230 (SCA) (21 May 2018)
11. Case summary: S v Beale (A283/18) [2019] ZAWCHC 115 (3 May 2019)
Legislation 11
1. Children's Act, 2005 514 citations
2. Domestic Violence Act, 1998 123 citations
3. Child Justice Act, 2008 114 citations
4. Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2013 50 citations
5. Prevention and Combating of Torture of Persons Act, 2013 36 citations
6. Customary Initiation Act, 2021 14 citations
7. Cybercrimes Act, 2020 14 citations
8. Prevention and Combating of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Act, 2023 5 citations
9. Legal Aid of South Africa Regulations, 2017
10. Regulations relating to Child Justice, 2010
11. Western Cape Commissioner for Children Act, 2019
Law Reform Report 1
1. Investigation into Legal Fees - Including Access to Justice and Other Interventions - Project 142
Manual 1
1. PACOTIP Manual